ALLEN COUNTY PUBLIC LIBBARY
3 1833 01438 8232
Signature of Dr. Thomas Wynne.
A Genealogical Summary of the Ancestry of the
Welsh Wynnes, who Emigrated to Penn-
sylvania with William Penn.
By T. B. DEEM
Aetna Printing Co.. Is
COATS OF ARMS
JOHN WYNNE, of Wales.
Jo my late dear wife
SARAH J. WYNN
this volume is respectfully
dedicated as a loving
remembrance from her
The de Hautevilles 17
Robert le Guiscard 31
Roger of Sicily 37
Bohemond, the Crusader 43
Tancred, the Peerless Knight 55
The Hispano-Norman-Tuscan Branch . 65
Royal Welsh 85
The Story of Princess Nesta Ill
The Montgomeries H9
The Invasion of Ireland 127
The Geraldines 137
Return of Osbern 167
The Welsh Wynnes 179
Wynnes Come to America 203
American Wynnes 235
The Humphreys 255
The Dickinsons 260
The Chews 260
The Wynnes 260
Welcome Society of Pennsylvania 268
The Second Jonathan Wynn 271
Fayette County (Pa.) Branch 279
The Thomas Wynne Branch of Pennsylvania Family 288
Jonathan Wynne III 301
Jonathan Wynn IV 306
Family of James Wynne 324
The Ohio Branch 328
List of Illustrations
John Wynne, of Wales Frontispiece
Amalfi, Italy 21
Ancient Jerusalem 27
Storming of Antioch 35
Tiberias, Palestine 39
Palermo, Italy - 45
Death of King Manfred 49
Ferdinand the Catholic 53
Palazzo di Podesta, Florence 57
Windsor Castle, two views 61
Princess Nesta 69
Map of Ireland ( Norman ) 73
Pembroke Castle 77
Shrewsbury Castle 83
Map of Wales (Ancient) 87
A Glimpse of Snowdon 91
. Corwen and Valley of the Dee 95
Harlech Castle, Wales 99
Cavew Castle, Wales 103
Stone Coffin of Llewellen the Great 109
Banne Harbor, Ireland (now Bannow) 113
Lismore Castle, Ireland 117
Askeaton Castle, Ireland 121
Cahir Castle, Ireland 125
Maynooth Castle, Ireland 129
Conway Castle 133
Cathedral of St. David, Wales 139
Bettys- Y-Coed, Wales ■ 143
Dolwyddelen Castle, Wales 145
Gwydir Castle, Wales 149
Sir John Wynne of Gwydir 155
Wynnestaye, Wales 157
Sarcophagus of King Llewellyn, Gwydir Chapel, Wales 161
Wynncstay, Pennsylvania 165
Wynnewood, Pennsylvania 169
Bank Meeting House, Philadelphia 173
Gen. John Cadwalader 177
Rev. Jonathan Wynne, Fayette County, Pa 181
Rev. Isaac Wynne, Fayette County, Pa 185
Summer Home of Benjamin Corson, Fayette County, Pa 189
Grave of Rev. Jonathan Wynne 193
Grave of Mrs. Mary Wynne 197
Marsh Farm, Chester County, Pa 201
Rachel Wynne Zeublin and Husband 205
Jonathan Wynne Zeublin, Pendleton, Ind 209
Samuel Wynne, Chester County, Pa 213
Joseph Wynne, Indiana 217
Home of John Wynne, Crawford County, Ohio 221
Wynne Coke Furnaces, Fayette County, Pa 225
Old Wynne Homestead — Walter Laughead, at Oliphant Furnace, Pa. .229
Jonathan Wynne, Crawford County, Ohio 233
Thomas Wynne, of Texas 237
Wynnefield, Illinois 241
T. B. Deem, Knightstown, Ind 245
Wynnewood Place, Texas • 249
Mrs. Susan Wynne Arnold, Florida 253
Mrs. Elizabeth Wynne French and Husband 257
Isaac Wynne and Family, Crawford County, Ohio 2G1
Thomas and Nancy Wynne, Toledo. Ohio 265
Mr. and Mrs. E. S. Wynne, Toledo, Ohio 269
John Wynne and Family, Paris, 111 273
Sarah Wynne Deem, Knightstown, Ind 277
Grave of Mrs. Lina Wynne, Edgar County, 111 281
Residence of Sarah Wynne Deem, Knightstown, Ind -.285
Mrs. Rachel Wynne Moyer and Family, Weatherford, Texas 289
Mrs. Linnie Wynne Watson and Family, Chrisraan, 111 293
Tho Five Hiday Brothers (Soldiers), Fortville, Ind 297
Mrs. Ola Wynne Hudson and Family, Mouwequa, 111 303
Isaac Newton Wynne, Mineral Wells, Texas 309
Mrs. Mary Wynne Sothers and Family, Kansas 315
Donald H. Deem, New York City 325
Nadia Florence Deem, Knightstown, Ind 335
Roger de Hauteville 42
Rulers of Antioch, Tripoli and Cyprus 51
Hispano-Norman Ancestry 67
Descendants of Walter Fitz-Other 82
Descendants of Princess Nesta 153
Descendants of Maurice Fitzgerald 187
THE author of this book has, by special request, taken upon
himself to collect and arrange such matters as pertain to
the genealogical history of the ancestors of that branch of
the great Welsh family of Wynnes as are the offspring of Dr.
Thomas Wynne, who emigrated to the Colony of Pennsylvania
in company with William Penn, the founder, Or during
the latter part of the seventeenth century. In undertaking
this work I have had the usual fortune of compilers of family
history: meeting with indifference, modesty, suspicion, jealousy,
along with cordiality, eagerness and hearty support and helpful-
ness. It is therefore observable that in some respects the work
is full and comprehensive, while in others it is lacking in detail
and other essentials which might have been obtained had fuller
co-operation been forthcoming. Taken altogether, it is only
pioneer work at the best, and if it but serves for a nucleus around
which other information may be grouped, and systematized into
a complete whole, the author will feel amply repaid for his efforts,
and the members of the family interested will be equally benefited.
Knightstown, Indiana, U. S. A. T.. B. Deem.
THE BE HAUTEVILLES.
IN ONE of the green valleys of the Cotentin, near a small
stream that finds its way into the river Dove, in what was an-
cient Normandy, hut now is the Dcpartmente le Manche, there
are still standing the crumbling walls of an old Norman castle. It
lies five miles northeast of Coutances, the nearest town of impor-
tance, and dominates the village of Hauteville-la-Guichard. The
scene from the ruins is very beautiful, with the wide sweep of fer-
tile fields and leafy woodlands, with the many neat white farm-
houses and villas dotting the landscape, and the shining thread of
silver embowered in trees which mark the passage of the little river
to the not very distant waters of the English channel. The neigh-
boring fields still keep their old names of the Park, the Forest, and
the Dove Cote; and in this way, if no other, the remembrance is
preserved of an old feudal manor-house. Its roof has a warlike
looking rampart, and a shapely tower with double crosses lifts itself
against the sky, while around it are to be discerned faint traces of
what might indicate a moat and the foundations of a drawbridge.
Some gigantic oaks are clustered in groups about the estate, and
under the spreading branches of a hoary cedar tree there is a little
chapel built of stone, and a building whose venerable appearance
makes one feel that its building dates back to the time when the
people of whom we are going to write lived in the old castle, and
worshipped in the beautiful little church.
In the very first days of the eleventh century there lived
in this quiet place an old Norman gentleman, probably a
grandson of those fierce vikings who, sailing out from
the grim old Norseland, had with Rolf the Ganger found
and conquered a fairer land in a summer clime than their
own bleak hills afforded. Suffice it to say that stout old
Sieur Tancred de Hauteville had been one of the most trusted
officers in the household of that Duke of Normandy whom history
names as Richard the Good. He was a tall, powerfully built man
whose physical powers had been frequently tested at court festivals
by feats of strength and daring for the pleasure of the company.
One of his acts has been recorded by the cotemporary historian, and
comes down to us: "While hunting with his prince one day, the
duke was thrown from his horse by the unexpected rush of a large
boar which he was attacking, and was in imminent danger from
the tusks of the infuriated animal. With the quickness of light-
ning Sieur Tancred sprang from his horse and, drawing his sword,
drove the weapon into the breast of the beast, through bone and
brawn and tissue until the cross-handled hilt touched home. Now,
it was a sad breach of court etiquette for a follower to strike game
in the presence of his sovereign, but the act was condoned on
account of the imminence of the peril, and the old duke embraced
his deliverer, and appointed him as captain of his bodyguard. Sir
Tancred served his prince for many years until the latter was
gathered to his fathers, and his son Eichard the Devil came to
be ruler, when the old Norman was dismissed with favor and re-
turned to his ancestral domain, there to pass the remainder of his
days in peace and quietude, ami rear his family. This family was
a numerous one for even those days, and the posterity roll com-
prised twelve sons and three daughters. His first wife was named
Muriel, and by her he had five sons, Serlon, William, Drogo,
Humphrey and Geoffry, and one daughter, Emma. After the
mother's death he married again, the second wife being named
Margaret. In those days wives, unless they were heiresses to
large landed possessions were generally known by their Christian
names, and not much account taken of their lineage. So we can
not learn from what particular ancestry the female branch of the
' De Haxitcvilles sprang. The latter wife bore her spouse seven
sons and two daughters. The names of all these can not be
gathered, but mention is made of Robert, Humbert, Gerard and
Roger, and one of the daughters, ^Margaret. This progeny of
sons were all of the same stalwart mold as their father, and evi-
dently gifted with abundant shrewdness and intelligence. They
received such education as gentlemen gave their children in those
days, and above everything else, were made expert in the use of
arms and horses and the pleasures of the chase. One of the old
French chroniclers tells us that "they had an air of dignity, and
even in their youth great things were expected of them; it was
easy to prophesy their brilliant future."
But the nest was overfull, and the young eaglets began to grow
restless. While they were still hardly more than boys, Serlon, the
eldest, was sent to court and became a gentleman in waiting on
the duke. In those turbulent days where gentlemen were ofttimes
compelled to carve out their place in society with their sword in
very fact, it speedily happened that Serlon became engaged in a
rencontre with one of his associates, and in resenting an insult
which the latter offered him, Serlon was so unfortunate as to kill
his adversary. He escaped to England, where he spent some time
in the dreariness of exile. This brought great sorrow to the over-
crowded household in Cotentin ; it was most likely that a great
deal depended on Serlon s success, and the eager boys at home were
looking to him for their own advancement. However, the dis-
appointment was not for long; for it was the time when Henry of
France was likely to lose his throne through the intrigues of his
brother and his mother, Constance of Provence, and Henry came
to the Duke of Xormandy for aid. Serlon came home again, and,
keeping himself in the guise of an unknown knight, a role by no
means uncommon in those days, he fought like a tiger at the siege
of Tillieres. You remember that this siege lasted a long time and
m gave rise to many incidents peculiar to wars of that age. At one
stage of the siege a powerful knight developed the habit of coming
forth from the city every day and challenging an opponent to
single combat. So puissant was this champion that many of the
French had been slain by his spear, until no more would adven-
ture the combat. This was an opportunity for distinction before
the whole army and a chance which the shrewd son of brave old
Taucred saw would, if successfully carried out, rehabilitate him in
the good graces of his prince. So one morning before the appear-
ance of the challenger he took the initiative and rode up in front
of the gate and demanded that the adversary come forth. This
the latter quickly did, and, upon his appearance, demanded of
Serlon who he was ; and, "as if he realized that he had met his
match, counseled the champion of Normandy to run away and
not try to tight with him." Nobody knew the banished man who
carefi lly kept his visor down, and when the fight was over, and
the enemy's head graced his spear point as he earicolled his steed
in front of the ranks of his Norman friends, the whole army broke
forth in plaudits of his valorous deed. Duke Robert being ap-
prized of the affair, sent for Scrlon, ''and on his removing his
helmet, disclosing the features of his former squire, he embraced
him; and, still more, he gave back to him all the lands and treas-
ures comprising Serlon's wife's dower, which had been confiscated
when the young Norman had been driven from the country."
This triumph of the elder brother filled the younger boys with
martial spirit, and as there was at that time many young Xormans
going to Southern Italy on invitation of the Christian rulers there
who wanted help against the inroads of the Moslems, who had
already overran Sicily and were making raids upon the main-
land and devastating the country and towns, three of the eldest
left Normandy for Italy and reached Naples soon after the found-
ing of Aversa by Rainulf the Norman (just north of Naples,
founded in 1030) and took service with that nobleman. They
soon acquired an extraordinary reputation for courage and quick-
ness of resource. Their names were William Bras de Fer, or the
Iron Arm. Drogo and Humphrey.
An Italian historian said of the first Normans who settled in
that country: "The Normans are a cunning and revengeful
people; eloquence and dissimulation appear to he their hereditary
qualities. They can stoop to flatter; but unless they arc curbed
by the restraint of law they indulge the licentiousness of nature
and passion, and in their eager search for wealth and dominion
they depisc whatever they possess and hope whatever they desire.
Arms and horses, the luxury of dress, the exercise of hawking and
hunting are the delights of the Normans; hut on pressing occa-
sions they can endure with incredible patience the inclemency of
every climate, and the toil and abstinence of a militarv life."
Their first exploit occurred in 1034, when Rainulf loaned them
to the Greek Emperor for the invasion of Sicily. They com-
manded five hundred Norman knights in the expedition. Meet-
ing the Moslems in battle at Rametta, the latter were defeated and
the Norman- invested Syracuse. The city was under the com-
rnand of the Moslem emir, and with him William Bras de Fer
fought to the death in single combat. Brave as the bravest, and
far stronger than other men, the Moslem had long been the terror
of the Christians ; but his hour was at hand, and the vanguard of
a race stronger than his was before him. lie fell before the walls
of Syracuse, pierced by the Xorman spear, and his fall foreran
by a few clays the surrender of the city. The tyranny of the Greek
commander of the victorious army was, however, so outrageous
that the Normans left him and returned to Aversa, vowing venge-
ance on the Greeks, and thereafter the two nationalities were
hostile to each other. The Xormans were as remarkable for the
subtlety with which they could lead their enemies into a trap as
they Mere conspicuously brave when forced to fight against odds in
the open field. In conjunction with Ardoin, a Lombard, they con-
cocted a scheme whereby Ardoin delivered to the Xormans the
stronghold of !Meln, the key to South Italy, with the understanding
that all conquests made should be divided equally. William and
Drogo, accompanied by three hundred Xorman knights, followed
Ardoin to fight in open warfare against the great Greek empire
that still held a great part of Europe and Asia, and ruled over
many millions of subjects. The compactness and suddenness of
the assault made upon the territory of Melfi swept away all re-
sistance, and they were masters of the place in a day. Quickly
fortifying their prize they began extending their conquest, pil-
laging Venosa on the south, liavello in the east and Ascoli to
northward. Xone dared stand against them, and all people were
amazed and terror-struck under their furious raids.
But the Greeks quickly recovered from their surprise and, com-
bining their forces, advanced to meet the Xormans with a great
army near Venosa. The Xorman array was formed as a wedge
and numbered only seven hundred knights and five hundred men-
at-arms on foot, while the Greeks numbered thirty thousand. The
latter were defeated with great loss. But seven weeks thereafter
William and his troops were compelled to fight another great
battle on the plain of Cannae, a field made memorable by the
great victory of Hannibal over the Romans fifteen centuries be-
fore. Again the Xormans were victorious. But. the Greeks were
pertinacious, and, under a new commander and with fresh troops
imported, they again attacked their adversaries on the same field
of Cannae in 1041. The Xormans numbered seven hundred
knights, while the Greeks were ten thousand. William Bras de
Fer was himself ill with a fever and sat on his horse at a little
distance looking on. The Xormans, although fighting like lions,
were slowly forced back by sheer weight of numbers, but dis-
dained to fly. "Then William Bras de Fer, ill as he was, drew his
great sword and rode at the foe for life or death ; and the Xormans
took heart and struck ten times while the Greeks struck once, and
hewed them in pieces on the plain, - ' and they captured the Greek
general and brought him back to .Melfi. A few years later the
Greeks sent over another army to destroy the Xormans, but Will-
iam and Drogo quickly drove them back and besieged them in
Tarento. The chronicler, William of Apulia, quoted by Delate,
compares the maneuvers of William Bras de Fer and the Xormans
before Tarento to the tricks of the serpent charmer endeavoring to
lure a snake from its hole. But nothing availed, and the Xormans
retired and proceeded with the conquest of the Duchy of Apulia,
which they speedily overran and elected William Bras de' Fer as
Count of Apulia, which office he held under the suzerainty of
Bainulf of Aversa.
After these events the De Hauteville brothers took part in the
petty quarrels of the local rulers, always aggrandizing themselves
at the expense of their neighbors. Bras de Fer had invaded
Calabria and built a strong Xorman fort at Squillace, on the Gulf
of Tarento, in sight of Sicily. After a few more petty battles,
William, the elder brother, died in 104(j, after an active career of
ten years in Italy. It is believed that he lies buried in the Church
of the Trinity at Venosa, but no trace of his tomb exists at
Drogo, who had been associated with William in the leadership,
succeeded him, and received in marriage the daughter of Guaimar,
Prince of Salerno, with a gTeat dowry. Soon after the Emperor
Henry III of Germany marched into Italy and proceeded to hold a
general conference for the settlement of Italian affairs. He con-
firmed Drogo as Count of Apulia under his own immediate suze-
rainty, thus releasing him from vassalage to the Prince of Salerno.
The Emperor, finding fault with other of his South Italian sub-
jects, turned them over to the Xormans for subjection. It is
needless to say that this was quickly accomplished. Drogo carried
out the plans of his brothers and enlarged his boundaries. Shortly
afterwards his half-brother, Robert, arrived with a small force, and
Drogo gave him a small tower in the mountains for a home. Later
the two brothers were in apposition in some local squabble. Some
time afterwards Drogo seized the town of Benevento, a feoff of
the Pope, who became very indignant. But when he sent to pro-
test he found that Drogo had been assassinated while attending
mass at the castle of Montolio in Apulia, the occasion being a seri-
ous uprising of the native Italians, which bad been fomented for
the purpose of throwing off the Xorman yoke. Both Humphrey
and Robert escaped the massacre and proceeded at once to avenge
their brother's murder. They bound the limbs of the assassin and
sawed them off one by one, and because the man still breathed they
buried him alive. The rest of the prisoners they hanged, and this
revenge somewhat allayed the grief of Humphrey; and Leo IX,
who regarded Drogo as his friend, sang a mass for his soul that
all his sins might be forgiven him.
Afterwards Humphrey succeeded his brother as Count of
Apulia. Shortly afterwards the Pope entered into a conspiracy
with the Greek Emperor to get rid of the Normans, and in fur-
therance of this plot Prince Gmiimar of Salerno was murdered by
his brothers-in-law because he refused to antagonize the Xormans,
who were his allies. But this foul wrong was quickly avenged by
the Xonnans. The Pope and bis confederate Italians, Greeks and
Germans advanced to Mount Gargano, where they met the De
Hautevilles. Humphrey bad called out every fighting man in
Apulia; Robert had brought up his wild Calabrian marauders,
and' Richard of Aversa, their brother-in-law, was present with a
body of men-at-arms. So small was their forces, however, that
Humphrey attempted to compromise with the Pope, but the Pope
would hear to nothing; except that the Xormans should quit Italy
altogether. Of course, this was out of the question, and so the
battle was joined June IS, 1053. Count Humphrey held the
center, Richard with his cavalry took the right, while Robert
Guiscard had the left wing. Humphrey had all he could do with
the stout German men-at-arms, but Robert pushed back the Lom-
bard line opposed to him, and gaining ground, was able to help
his brother. At this moment Richard with his cavalry, having
put to flight the Italian contingent, wheeled upon the German
rear, and struck the decisive blow. When the battle was over there
was not a German alive on the field. The Pope was himself made
prisoner. A conference was speedily held, in which the Normans
made peace with their prisoner, and promised to be faithful to
him and take the place of his soldiers whom they had slain.
Count Humphrey himself led the Pope's bridle rein in the tri-
umphal parade which ended the pageant attending the reconcilia-
Now about this time came from Normandy three more of the
De Ilautcville sons, Geoffrey, a second William and Gerard; and
Humphrey, to establish them in possessions, took Salerno from its
rightful owner and gave it to William, and secured for Gerard
some papal feoffs in Tuscany. lie then made war on Argyros of
Pari and, defeating him, took his territory for his brothers. He
also gave his brother Robert more lands in Calabria. Shortly
afterwards he died and was buried with his brothers in the mon-
astery of Venosa. He made Robert the guardian of his son, then
a mere lad, but this sacred trust Robert completely ignored, and
finally robbed his ward of his principal territory- A little later
old Sieur Tancred de Hanteville died, and the remainder of the
family, except Serlon, removed to Italy. This company included
the widow and Margarita, Emma, Adclia, Humbert and two other
Incidentally, it might be mentioned that William the Con-
queror, while Duke of Normandy, owed his wife to the De Haute-
villes. When William asked the papal sanction to his \mion with
Matilda, sister of the Count of Flanders, the Pope, through the
instigation of the French king, denied the privilege on political
grounds. Put when the Normans in Italy, led by the De Haute-
villes, defeated the Pope's forces and practically held the head of
the church prisoner, the latter was constrained by his captors, the
former subjects of William, to withdraw his interdiction of the
marriage of the Norman duke and the Flemish heiress. Put for
this fortunate circumstance how might the affairs of great coun-
tries have been changed, since the support which William received
through the subjects and wealth of his wife aided him very ma-
terially in his expedition for the conquest of England.
In the records of the great crusading Order of Knights Hos-
pitallers of St. John it appears that that order was founded by
Thomasso Gerard, a member of the Norman family, who was born
at Amalfi, southern Italy, in 1040. He was probably a son of
the Gerard who was the friend and supporter of Robert Guiscard
before mentioned. He in company with other participants in the
first crusade organized the fraternity in the city of Jerusalem.
Through the efforts of his family the citizens of Amalfi con-
tributed liberally to its support until its organization was con-
firmed by Pope Pascal II in 1113.
E. A. Freeman, the traveler, tells of searching for Hauteville lo
Guiscard, and says ''that west of the village church is a round
tower seemingly belonging to a gateway, suggests a chateau which
has taken the place of a chateau-fort, and about this is an un-
doubted ditch which may have been the moat. It is deep, it is
four-sided, and it fences in a distinct plot of ground. The route
from Coutances is northeast by the route nationale, about four
miles; then we turn off on a route departmentale. Presently a
gentle down rather than a gentle up brings us to a small village — a
church with a saddle-bag tower and a few houses around it. This
is Hauteville le Guiscard." The statues of the De Hauteville
sons who became famous are set up in niches on the north side of
the cathedral at Coutances. They are dressed in ducal or royal
robes. The district of Coteutiu is a peninsula on the north of
France projecting into the English channel. The name signifies
the same as Coutances.
Venosa, a town of Italy, province of and twenty-three miles
northeast from Potenza, situate at the foot of Mt. Vulture. It
has a former abbey founded in the eleventh century, noteworthy
as containing tombs of Robert Guiscard and other De Hautevilles.
Also an old castle, catacombs of ancient Jews. Birthplace of
Horace the poet. The population in 1001 was S,423.
7 * : " ^Iifeil-;S
ROBERT LE GUISCAED.
IT WAS about 1047 that Robert, afterwards surnamed Guis-
c-ard, the eldest sun of Sieur Tancred d'e Hauteville and his
second wife, Margarite, arrived in Italy. Following is the
portrait of Robert, as found in the writings of Anna Comnena,
the daughter of Alexius, Emperor of Constantinople: "This
Robert was of Xorman origin and of an obscure family ; he united
a marvelous astuteness with immense ambition, and his bodily
strength was prodigious. His whole desire was to attain to the
wealth and power of the greatest living men ; he was extremely
tenacious of his designs and most wise in finding means to attain
his ends. In stature he was taller than the tallest ; of a ruddy hue
and fair-haired; he was broad-shouldered, and his eyes sparkled
with fire; the perfect proportion of all his limbs made him a model
of beauty from head to heel, as 1 have often heard people tell.
Homer says of Achilles that those who heard his voice seemed to
hear the thundering shout of a great multitude, but it used to be
said of Robert that his battle-cry would turn back tens of thou-
sands. Such a man, one in such a position, of such a nature, and
of such a spirit, naturally hated the idea of service, and would not
be subject to any man; for such are those natures which are born
too great for their surroundings."
It is said that Robert, accompanied by five men-at-arms and
thirty footmen, appeared before his brother Drogo, disguised
under cowl and gown as pilgrims. Although not very welcome to
his half-brothers, they took him in and gave him a tower in the
mountains on their frontier, where he maintained himself in the
profitable but precarious occupation of a robber chief. So the
beginning of his life was filled with much bloodshed and many
murders. Another difficulty arising between the princes of
Salerno and Capua, Drogo and his forces assisted the latter, but
Robert antagonized his brothers. Robert's employer, however,
failed in his rewards, and the Xorman promptly went over to the
other side, and Drogo gave him a castle in lower Calabria, near
the enemy's country, and overlooking the valley of the Crati and
the site of the ancient Sybaris. If Drogo hoped that his wild
young brother would not attempt to hold it, but would become dis-
gusted and leave Italy, he misjudged a man far greater than him-
self. Robert did, indeed, leave the castle, but only after he had
won a better place up the valley on the famous rock of San Marco,
where he established himself and led the life of a desperate ma-
rauder. He suddenly improved his fortunes by matrimony.
Being on his way to visit Drogo he met a Xorman kinsman of his
named Gerard, who was the first to address him as Guiscard or
'•'the wise." "0 Guiscard," said he, "why do you thus wander
hither and thither '. Behold, now, marry my aunt, the sister of
my father, and I will be your knight, and will go with you to
conquer Calabria, and I will bring two hundred riders." In spite
of Drogo's strong objections, Robert espoused the aunt, whose
name is variously written as Adverada or Alberada, but years
afterward he repudiated her. Gerard kept his word, and with
his help Robert won castles and towns and devoured the land.
After the death of Drogo and Humphrey, Robert became the head
cf the family. About this time Roger, the youngest son of old
Sieur Tancred de Hauteville, arrived in Italy, and asked for a
part in the field of operations. By way of trying him Robert gave
him sixty men and sent him mi an expedition, from which he was
able soon afterward to send Guiscard a large sum of money in
return. Soon a three-cornered fight began between Robert, Roger
and the younger William of Salerno, during which the territories
of Robert were much harassed by the younger brethren. The
quarrel continuing, the natives picked up courage, revolted against
the Xormans, who were in turn compelled to reunite for safety.
Soon after this the brethren assisted in establishing Pope Nicholas
upon the papal throne. Robert then continued his conquest of
the south of Italy. About this time he repudiated his wife, by
whom he was the father of an only son, Rohemond, who after-
wards became the famous crusader Bohemond. The occasion of
his divorce was the relation of kinship with his wife, a papal bull
having recently been promulgated forbidding all marriages within
the seventh degree of consanguinity. He gave her splendid gifts
and a good home, but almost on the morrow he sought the hand of
Sigelgaito, the sister of the Gisulf whom Humphrey had ousted
from Salerno to make room for young William llauteville. The
marriage being completed, Robert in turn ousted his brother and
put back bis brother-in-law.
In 1060 Robert took Tarento, and, in concert with Roger, cap-
tured Reggio. Robert slew in single combat a huge knight who
defied all the Xormans together. Robert occupied the fortress.
While Robert was operating in Sicily a Greek army landed at
Bari, and driving back Robert, took nearly the whole country;
however, on Roger's return, the brothers in turn drove out the
enemy as quickly as they had advanced. In return for Roger's
generous aid Robert helped him to conquer Sicily, and installed
his younger brother therein.
Again the Greeks organized a force to try to recapture Italy
from Robert ; and his nephew, Humphrey's son, spurred by his
uncle's neglect, joined the coalition. After some minor successes
by the allies, Robert overcame them and drove them from the
country. It took him over two years to recover by siege the
fortress of Bari, being finally assisted by Roger. The next year
he helped Roger capture Palermo, the last stronghold in Sicily
to resist the Xonnan arms. Returning to Italy, Robert was taken
violently ill, and the report was circulated that he was dead, and
his wife had her son Roger crowned as duke. But he as quickly
recovered. This was in 1073, and he was to live twelve years
longer, during which time he shook the very foundations of the east-
ern Roman empire, lie married his daughter to Raymond, Count
of Provence, and received help from thence in his undertakings.
In 10S2 he carried his war against the Greeks into Bulgaria, and.
achieved some success, but was recalled to rescue the Pope from
the Germans. Duke Robert went up from the south like a whirl-
wind, drove off the enemy and burned half of Rome. The Ger-
man emperor fled before him. Returning, he organized another
expedition to the East, and landed at Durazzo. Here he was taken
sick and died in July, 1084. His body was brought back and laid
beside his brothers nt Venosa. In a subsequent dispute between
his sons Bohemond and Roger Bursa, Count Roger of Sicily took
sides with his namesake, and the younger son was made Duke of
Calabria, although his uncle robbed him of most of his territory.
The young Roger lived but a short life and left a feeble son,
William of Apulia, as duke in his turn, who died prematurely and
without male issue.
'- *&.-. -
i - . -
STORMING OF ANTIOCH
ROGER OF SICILY.
THE island of Sicily had prior to the coming of the Normans
been subject more or less to the Saracens for two hundred
and thirty-six years, and the general character of its popu-
lation had been much influenced by its Moslem masters. Within
thirty years all this is changed, and the little island springs into
an importance which she had not before enjoyed since the palmy
days of the Roman empire. In fact, never before or after was
the island so united or so independent. Some of the old tyrants
had ruled out of Sicily; none had ruled over all Sicily. The
Normans held all Sicily as the center of a dominion which
stretched far beyond it. The conquest was the work of one man,
a representative of one family, and that family the one in which
we have an especial interest.
Roger was the youngest son of old Sieur Tancred de Hauteville
of Coutances, in Normandy, and full brother of Robert Guiscard,
whose family we have heretofore traced in this history. Roger
was born in the year 1030, and when barely twenty years of age
followed his older brothers to Italy. He served his brother Robert
for several years in his many adventures, and in this way per-
fected himself in that trait of intelligent leadership and dashing
valor which has so often distinguished members of this enter-
prising family. In the course of these expeditions he had more
than once clashed with Saracen pirates and freebooters, who,
making Sicily their base of operations, harassed the mainland by
In 1060 Roger prepared an expedition for the purpose of re-
taliating upon the Moslem marauders, and invaded Sicily with
sixty men-at-arms and several hundred auxiliaries. His success
gave the inhabitants the chance they had long desired, and they
rose in revolt against their Saracen masters. In a short time
Count Roger had obtained a permanent footing, which he never
afterwards lost, and although it took him no less than thirty years
to completely subjugate the island, this long time was probably
owing to his being often called away to take part in the numerous
enterprises of his brethren on the mainland, and in attempts upon
the Eastern or Byzantine empire.
The conquests of the Xormans in Italy and Sicily form part
of one enterprise; but they altogether differ in character. In
Italy they overthrew the Byzantine dominion; their own rule was
perhaps not worse, but they were not deliverers. In Sicily they
were everywhere welcomed by the Christians as deliverers from
infidel bond age. Roger, the Great Count, died in 1101, and was
succeeded by his young son, Simon, who died in 1105, after whom
the inheritance fell to Roger, another son, who was crowned king.
He inherited all Sicily, save half of Palermo — the other half had
been given up — and part of Calabria. The other half of Palermo
was soon acquired, and that city became the Xorman capital. On
the death of his cousin, Duke William of Apulia, King Roger
gradually founded (1127-40) a great Italian dominion. To the
Apulian duchy he added (1130) the Xorman principality of
Capua, Naples (1138), the last dependency of the Eastern empire
in Italy, and (1140) the Abruzzi, an undoubted land of the West-
ern empire. He thus formed a dominion which has been divided,
united and handed over from one prince to another as often as
any other State in Europe, but whose frontier had hardly changed
at all until the unification of Italy under the house of Savoy. In
1130 Roger was crowned at Palermo, by authority of the anti-
pope Anacletus, taking the strange title of "King of Sicily and
Italy." He died in 1154.
Roger's son William, surnamed the Bad, was crowned in his
father's lifetime in 1151, and his reign lasted till 11CG. It was a
time of turbulence and domestic rebellions, and witnessed the loss
of Roger's African possessions. He was succeeded by his son,
William the Good, who reigned 11G6-S0 and marked the brightest
days of his dynasty. He married Joanna, daughter of Henry II
of England, but left no direct heir. He tried to secure the suc-
I'UPS „ .—
cession to his aunt Constance and her husband, Henry VI of Ger-
many ; but after his death the people rebelled and placed Tailored,
the illegitimate grandson of Roger I, on the throne. Tancred was
an associate of Richard Cour de Leon in the second crusade. On
the death of Tancred (.ll'.'-t) his son, William III, succeeded, but
Henry VI asserted his rights through his wife, and by force seized
the entire kingdom. In 11!>7 he died, leaving it to his son Fred-
erick, heir through his Norman mother. This king was crowned
in 115)8. He afterwards became the celebrated Emperor Fred-
erick II of Germany — "Frcdcrtcus stupor mundi et immutator
nvirabil-is." After several other German Xorman kings, the crown
fell to Manfred, who was defeated and slain by Charles, Duke of
Anjou, in 1200. Sixteen years later the mainland possessions
were separated from the island, on occasion of the uprising of the
people in 12s2, and the frightful massacres known as the Sicilian
Vespers. As a result, the insular kingdom passed into the hands
of Peter of Aragon (Spain), husband of Manfred's daughter Con-
stance, of Xorman blood. After a tumultuous period of many
years the island came under the sway of Emperor Charles V of
Germany, himself a descendant of the House of De Hauteville,
and one of the most renowned sovereigns of Europe.
Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Aragon, under whose reign
Columbus discovered America, was a descendant of Roger de
In 1001 Roger married Judith or Erenberga, the great grand-
daughter of Richard I of Xormandy, with whom he was in love
before leaving France. Another strife occurred between Roger
and Guiscard because the latter persisted in holding some towns.
During the trend of hostilities it so happened that Robert fell into
his brother's hands.; but again, on a threatened uprising of the
natives, the Xormans were reconciled, and divided anew their
territories. In further war in Sicily, Sirlou de Hauteville,
nephew of Roger, was killed.
About nine hundred years have passed since Tancred de Haute-
ville dealt his famous thrust at the wild boar, and though his
house gave Sicily no long unbroken line of kings, yet the blood
of the Xorman gentleman is in the veins of almost every royal
race in Europe.
ROGER de HAUTEVILLE-
Simon, his son
TANCRED, illegitimate son,
King of Sicily till 1194
Roger, 1st King of Sicily,
I died 1154
William, the Bad,
Constance— Henry VI William, -Joanna
of Germanv, the Good, dau. of
conquered Sicily died 1189 Henry II
from William III of England
Frederick, crowned 1198,
afterwards Emperor Frederick II
of Germany, reigned till 1250
Conrad, King of the Romans
I . ,
till 1258, dispossessed by
Constance Pedro, King of Aragon
conquered Sicily from Charles,
the French Usurper, and
King of Sicily, King of Aragon,
Ferdinand, the Catholic-ISABELLA, Queen of Castile
King of Aragon, and Spam,
descendant of Frederick, benefactor of Columbus
Joanna- Phillip, of Austria,
son of Maximilian,
Emperor of Germany,
who married Mary,
Duchess of Burgundy
Charles V,' Emperor of Germany,
King of Spain, King of Sicily, King of Navarre,
and Sovereign of the Netherlands, 1516-155o
BOHEMOXD, TITE CEUSADEK.
MAEC BOHEMOXD, one of the leaders of the first crusade,
was born in Capua, Italy, in the year A. D. 1056. He was
the eldest son of Robert de Hauteville (Guiscard), Duke
of Calabria and Apulia, and the only child by his first or Norman
wife. When grown to manhood Bohemond is described by con-
temporary historians as "a giant in stature, a Hercules in strength,
a Ulysses in council." From 10S1 to 10S5 he served with his
father in the latter's famous war to gain possession of the Eastern
Roman empire, and which at one time bade fair to become a
finality ; the Normans having twice defeated the emperor's forces
in Thrace, and were thundering at the very gates of Constanti-
nople when they were suddenly recalled to Italy to defend the
Eope, who was besieged in his citadel by his subjects and the
troops of the German emperor. The Xormans stormed the walls
of Rome and after sacking the city relieved the Holy Father,
whom they brought away to Capua. In 10S5 Robert Guiscard
died, leaving Apulia and Calabria to a younger son, Eoger, while
to Bohemond he gave only the small principality of Tarentum.
A war between the brothers followed, in which Bohemond was
supported by his cousin, Tancred, Prince of Otranto, and his
uncle, Count Eoger of Italy.
Bohemond and his uncle, Eoger of Sicily, and his cousin,
Tancred of Otranto, were laying siege to Amalfi, when news came
that innumerable Frankish warriors had started on their march
to Jerusalem. Bohemond inquired of messengers: "What are
their weapons, what their badge and what their war cry?" "Our
weapons are those best suited to war; our badge the cross of Christ
upon our shoulders; our war cry *'Deus Vult! Deus Vult!' " The
pity or cupidity of the Norman was aroused at this answer. lie
tore off his own costly cloak, and with his own hands made of it
crosses for all who would follow him in the new enterprise. His
example proved contagious, and nearly all the knights offered
their services to Bohemond, so that Count Roger returned to Sicily
almost alone. With Bohemond went his cousin Tancred, destined
in later days to be Lord of Antioch, and to find immortal honor
in the great poem of Tasso, "Jerusalem Delivered."
Bohemond crossed to Durazzo about the end of October, and
two months later reached Castoria, where he spent Christmas,
and then proceeded on his way to Constantinople. He seems to
have been well supplied with provisions on the route and kept good
order on the march. At Rusa, on the 1st of April, he received
an invitation to Constantinople, and leaving his troops under care
of Tancred, hurried forward with only a few attendants. Alexius
knew Bohemoud's measure, and by the promise of a princely lord-
ship in the confines of Antioch prevailed on him to take the oath
Later, an attack having been made by Alexius' soldiers on the
French crusaders, Bohemond gave himself as a hostage that
Alexius would give compensation for the outrage. The first ex-
ploit of Bohemond was in assisting in the siege and capture of
Xiceae, after which they started to march to Antioch. For pur-
poses of subsistence the army divided, one wing being composed
of Bohemond, Tancred, Hugh of Yermandois and Robert of
Normandy and their forces. At. evening Bohemond found his
forces beside the little stream of Dorylaeum. The little army was
encompassed by thousands of Turks upon the hills roundabout.
The tents were pitched and the night passed in anxious expecta-
tion, and in the morning the march was resumed. An hour or
two later an attack occurred mi all sides. Bohemond ordered a
halt, the baggage stacked and messengers dispatched to summon
reinforcements. Then the knights dismounted, and Bohemond
bade them be of good cheer, and keep the foe at bay while the foot-
men guarded the tents. It was a day of heroic deeds : ''The very
women were a stay to us," says Bohemoud's eulogi/.er, "for they
carried water for our warriors to drink, and ever did they
strengthen the fighters." At last, hemmed in by thousands of
Turks, Bohemond himself was losing heart, and his men giving
way, when Robert — mindful how his father turned the day at
Hastings — bared his head to view and urged his comrades to stand
firm. At this juncture the other Christian army came up, the Turks
were driven off and victory was snatched from the jaws of defeat.
Such was the fight of Dorylaeum, the first pitched battle between
the crusaders and the Turks. Fable and superstition soon cast a
halo around the fight, and it is now said "that two knights of won-
derful appearance — St. George and St. Theodore — went before in
the air and so affrighted the enemy as to leave them no chance of
From Dorylaeum the crusaders plodded on. over the burning
sands, through a waterless and uninhabited region, in which men,
women and horses perished by thousands. At last issuing into
the valleys of Iconium, they found plenty, and thence made their
way to Antioch, where they arrived Oct. 21, 1097.
Now Antioch was the strongest city in Asia Minor, and was at
one time the third city in the Roman empire, the whole circuit of
its walls enclosing four square miles. Bohemond's station among
the besiegers was before the south wall opposite the citadel. A
large army of Turks from the outside in turn beseiged the be-
siegers, until the latter suffered greatly from privations. Then
came news that another vast horde of enemies was advancing from
the east. Bohemond's warlike spirit was aroused, and at his own
suggestion he led forth one-half of the host to battle, while the
other half maintained the siege. Starting early in the morning
he surprised the Turks while encamped, but despite this advantage
the fight at first went against the Christians, till the reserve under
Bohemond's own banner restored the day. Then the Turks were
routed, their camp plundered, and the besieging army relieved
from want. So the war lingered for months until Bohemond
managed to enter into communication with some officials within
the walls and corrupted them to open the gates to his soldiers.
Then the wily Norman secured from his associate leaders the
.promise that if he could carry the scheme to success he should be
given the principality for his feoff. This secured he advanced to
the attack, the towers were stormed and the crusaders burst into
the city. Bohemond's banners were flung to the breeze, and he
assumed the command. Scarcely, however, had the army secured
the fortifications when the Turkish reinforcements appeared and
began to besiege them in turn. The miraculous finding of the
alleged spear which pierced the side of the Savior was made the
occasion of inspiriting the Christians, and a sally of the whole
army being undertaken under the lead of Bohemond and the other
leaders, the attack proved successful, and the Turkish army was
driven off with much slaughter.
After the relief of AntioeL the crusaders spent the four hot
months of summer in consolidating their authority over the sur-
rounding country, and in November began their march toward
Jerusalem. On November 28 Marra was assaulted by Raymond
of Toulouse, but. unsuccessfully. On Bohemond coming up the
attack was renewed successfully. Here another fierce quarrel
broke out between the two leaders, and Bohemond returned to
Antioch. After the capture of Jerusalem, Bohemond made a
pilgrimage to the Holy City, afterwards returning' to his prin-
cipality. A little later the ruler of Melitcne applied to Bohemond
for help against the Mohammedans. Bohemond accepted, and
while inarching along one day in careless confidence, without their
armor, the Normans fell into an ambuscade, were defeated, and
Bohemond taken prisoner, together with his cousin Richard, son
of Humphrey do Ilautevillc. Alexius, the Emperor of Constanti-
nople, always jealous of the vaulting ambition of Bohemond,
sought to obtain possession of his person by ransoming him from
his Turkish captor, bin the wily Norman outbid the Greek, and
was restored to liberty in 110:3, becoming in consequence the
sworn foe of the emperor. The next year he was called to aid the
King of Jerusalem by making an expedition against the Turks
at Damascus, in conjunction with other Christian counts. In a
battle which ensued at llarran the crusaders were defeated and
pursued to Edessa. The Turks and Greeks having united against
Bohemond, he determined to turn over his principality to his
cousin Tancred and return to Europe, there to organize an army
of reinforcement. He departed in 1104. Going to France, he
married Constance, daughter of Philip I, and with his wife's
dowry and by bi> promises of rich feoffs to the nobles, he raised
a large army, with which he crossed to Macedonia and laid siege
to Durazzo in 11 07. Being unsuccessful, he returned to Italy
and died in 1111, leaving two sons by his wife Constance. Of
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these John, the elder, died young-; the second, Bohemond, sur-
vived to receive his father's principality of Antioch fifteen years
later. In 1126 Bohemond II was called from Italy to take up
the defense of the principality of Antioch. He was married upon
his arrival to the Lady Alice, daughter of Baldwin IT, King of
Jerusalem. His reign was short and troubled. ITe not only was
engaged in war with the Turks, but with his Frankish neighbors.
Some years later he was surprised and slain at the Meadow of
Mantles in Cilicia. He was a youth of great promise and bade
fair to he a valiant soldier. His dominion passed to his infant
daughter Constance. A few years later this princess married Ray-
mond, Count of Poiton, who maintained the independence of his
territory till 1149, when he was slain in a skirmish, leaving a son,
Bohemond III, by his Avife Constance. This third namesake of
the great Norman ruled successfully until 1201, and was followed
by his son, Bohemond IV. In 12GS the city and principality of
Antioch, the last vestige of the Latin conquest in Asia Minor, fell
before the wave of Turkish conquest, and the House of Bohemond
became extinct as a reigning family on the mainland, though de-
scendants of the family ruled Cyprus until 1324.
Godfrey de Bouillon, the commander of the crusaders, came in
conflict with Bohemond on one occasion in a manner which shows
the stubborn spirit of the De Ilautevilles. The story is related
by Albert of Aix. "A superb Turkish pavilion which Baldwin,
the new Prince of Edessa, had captured and sent to Godfrey as a
present, was intercepted by an Armenian chieftain and dispatched
as his own gift to Bohemond. Godfrey, accompanied by his
friend, the Count of Flanders, paid an angry visit, to the quarters
of Bohemond to demand restitution of the tent. The indomitable
Norman refused compliance, and Godfrey complained to the coun-
cil of princes. Bohemond was at last compelled to give up the
disputed property. The whole scene may recall to mind some of
the squabbles of the Homeric heroes."
FERDINAND THE CATHOLIC
TANCRED, THE PEERLESS KXIIIT.
WHEN Emma or Matilda, as she was severally known in
Norman or Italian languages, the eldest daughter of old
Sieur Tailored of De Hauteville, followed her brothers to
Italy she no doubt did so for the purpose of assisting them in
their endeavors to consolidate and enhance their dominions in
the peninsula. Now in those tumultuous days about the only way
in which a female could be utilized in furtherance of such objects
was to allow herself to be given in marriage to some neighboring
ruler and by the marital tie to bind him to his wife's relations.
So we find that this step was accordingly taken, and Emma was
bestowed in marriage upon Odo, surnamed the Good, Prince of
Otranto. From this union sprang, among other children, the sub-
ject of this chapter, Prince Tailored, the eldest son.
Tancred as he grew up seems to have inherited all the good
qualities of his Italian and Norman blood, while exhibiting very
few of their bad traits. Douglass, in his "Heroes of the Cru-
sades," says of him : "Gentle as well as chivalrous, kind to the
poor and oppressed, Tancred was distinguished for all the en-
during qualities that adorned knighthood in its most romantic
and splendid days." He was, with his cousin Bohemond and his
uncle, the great Count Roger of Sicily, engaged in the siege of
Amain, when the message reached the army of the Christian up-
heaval in favor of the redemption of the holy sepulchre from the
hands of the infidels. It is needless to say that the Crusade stirred
all the noble and chivalric instincts of his soul, and he was among
the first to announce his intention to take part. He and Bohe-
mond raised and equipped an army of ten thousand horseman and
fifteen thousand foot soldiers, with which they sailed from Brin-
disi, landing; at Salonica in Thrace. From thence they inarched
to Constantinople ; Tancred having charge of the army, while his
cousin Bohemond, in answer to an invitation from the Greek em-
peror, hastened forward to arrange for crossing the Hellespont.
Upon the arrival of the army at the straits the emperor endeav-
ored vainly to induce Tailored to swear fealty to him, and in
order to escape the importunities of the wily Greek, he crossed
into Asia with the vanguard of the army. It is recorded that of
all the crusading host Tancred is the only sovereign prince who
did not subject himself in some way to the will of the Greek
He helped at the siege of Xicea, the first operation of the great
army. Shortly afterwards he and Bohemond were engaged in the
battle of Dorvlaeum, in which Tanered's brother, William, was
killed, and Tancred was himself saved from death by the daring
and courage of Bohemond. The timely arrival of reinforcements
saved the cousins from defeat. At Malmistra, Tancred became
involved in a quarrel with Count Baldwin of Flanders, and an
action between their forces ensued. Tancred captured Tarsus
after a sharp fight. At Antioch lie distinguished himself in the
siege and capture of that city. It is related that during the siege,
while the crusaders were suffering from famine and pestilence,
the utmost despondency prevailed among the Christians; so much
so, that even Peter the Hermit, the great originator of the cru-
sades, and its evangelist throughout Europe, became discouraged,
and attempted to escape to the coast. His flight created the utmost
consternation among the superstitious masses, and the council of
leaders decided to enforce his return. The mission was entrusted
to Tancred, who overtook him and forcibly brought him back to
camp. The monk's desertion was only pardoned by the council
of indignant princes by his swearing never to abandon the holy
"When the army, having recovered from the fatigues of the siege
of Antioch and the defeat of the Saracen enemy, finally took up
its march toward Jerusalem, Bohemond remained behind for the
purpose of consolidating his power in his new principality, and
Tancred was the only one of the Italian-Xorman leaders to con-
tinue with the host. At the investment of the Holy City his forces
! i I, .■ ■ r • i
- ;. - . , - , i
PALAZZO DI PODESTA, FLORENCE
were assigned to the eastern side, ami his headquarters were fixed
upon the slopes of the Mount of Olives, from which he could over-
look the city ramparts. He was one of the first of the crusaders
to set his foot upon the battlements when some time later the city
was stormed and captured. An episode which occurred during
the sack of the city serves to show how much of a struggle poor
human nature has sometimes to undergo in an effort to be honest.
In the Mosque of Omar no less than seventy massive lamps of gold
and silver were found by Tancred and surrendered to the pre-
scribed uses of religion and charity ; but not, if we believe
Malmesbury, before the costliness of the prize had seduced the
hero, in a moment of unwonted frailty, to forget the usual purity
of his virtue. lie attempted to conceal the spoils for his private
profit until he was driven, by the reproaches of his conscience, to
make restitution of his booty to the ecclesiastical treasury.
After the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the
crowning of Godfrey de Bouillon as sovereign, all the remaining
European princes who had taken part in the capture of the capital
departed, leaving only Tancred as the new king's principal officer.
He bravely upheld his former military prowess in sundry opera-
tions, and in the battle of Ascalon with the army of the Caliph of
Egypt he won a signal victory and broke the power of the Saracens
in that quarter. He was endowed with the great feoff of Galilee,
with the title of Prince of Tiberias, which he administered by a
sub-governor, he himself remaining at the capital until the death
of Godfrey, which occurred a year later. Tancred was from the
first the closest friend of Godfrey, who esteemed him to be "the
most perfect character of his day, both in military skill, kuightly
honor and faithful regard for the public good."
Upon the accession of the late king's brother, Baldwin of
Flanders, to the throne, Tancred retired to his Galilean posses-
sions, which he continued to rule with wise moderation until the
capture of his cousin Bohemond by the infidels, when he repaired
to Antioch and assumed control of that territory in March, 1101.
He acted with a vigor characteristic of the old De Hauteville
spirit of acquisition, "to desire what he did not possess."
Laodicea was captured from the Greeks after a siege of eight-
een months, and Malmistra, Adana and Tarsus were also recovered
from the emperor, into whose hands they had lapsed. The era-
poror, aroused by these encroachments, endeavored to secure the
person of the imprisoned Bohemond by bribing his Moslem captor,
but Tancred checkmated his designs and bought his cousin's free-
dom for two hundred thousand besants. With the latter's release
more trouble occurred. Bohemond's turbulent spirit embroiled
him with surrounding rulers, and at the battle of Ilarran the
cousins were defeated by a confederacy and forced to take refuge
in Edessa, and lost the territories which Tancred had lately won.
At this juncture Bohemond departed for Europe with the inten-
tion of securing reinforcements, an enterprise from which he never
returned. This procedure left Tancred a free hand, which he
speedily utilized. The people of Edessa chose him for their ruler,
and he quickly reconquered all the possessions lost as the result
of the battle of Ilarran, and became the greatest lord in all Syria,
pushing his conquests to the gates of Aleppo and Damascus. lie
continued his career until the year 1112, when he was wounded in
a battle with the Moslems near Tell-basher on December 12th of
that year. Thus perished the last and among the greatest of the
chieftains of the first crusade. His disinterestedness in the cause
of this remarkable enterprise of Christendom is shown in the
last act of his life. He had married Cecelia, a princess of France
and a most noble woman, and when he found himself about to
die, being desirous of maintaining the bonds of common interest
hetween France and the Holy Land, he caused bis wife to agree
to marry Pons, Prince of Tripoli, grandson of Raymond of St.
While Antioch should by rights have gone to the young Bohe-
mond, the times were too troublous for a child of five years to
hold his own, and Roger Fitz Richard, the son of Margaret de
Hauteville and Richard, Count of Aversa, was placed on the
Roger was called to Galilee by the King of Jerusalem, who had
been defeated by the Saracens, and was besieged in the moun-
tains. Roger's diversion released the king, and the enemy retired
to Damascus. Shortly afterwards Roger obtained a great victory
at Rugia and returned to Antioch laden with spoil, to the acclama-
tion of the multitude: "Hail, Champion of the Truth!" His
arms extended to the Euphrates. All went well till 1119, when a
vast confederacy of Moslem emirs united in a joint attack upon
I . ■■■ -
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WINDSOR CASTLE, TWO VIEWS
the Christians. Roger, disdaining the sound advice of the patri-
arch, marched out to the attack. His advance force was com-
manded by Sir Manger, son of Geoffrey de Hauteville, who with
forty knights held back the enemy for some time. But the latter
swarmed everywhere and speedily surrounded the whole army.
After fighting for hours in the very front of battle, Roger fell,
pierced through the brain, at the foot of the banner of the Holv
Cross — "his body to the earth, his soul to heaven" — June 27,
1119. The affairs of Antioch were controlled by the King of
Jerusalem until 1120, when young Bohemond arrived and as-
sumed his inheritance.
The principality of Galilee, with which Tancred was invested
after the foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, comprised,
besides the district proper, the land of Zoad beyond Jordan, and
had Tiberias, or Tabarac, as capital. It contained many for-
tresses, such as Safed, La Feve, Forhelet and Belvoir, and the
towns of Nazareth and Scpphoris.
Tasso, in his ''Jerusalem Delivered," thus apostrophizes the
heroes of the crusade :
"Baldwin he sees ambitiously aspire
The height of human grandeur to attain,
And Tancred, victim of a fruitless fire,
Life's choicest blessings gloomily disdain,
While Bohemond in Antioch builds his reign,
And introducing arts and settling laws,
The poise of his new kingdom to sustain,
By power of solemn rite and custom, draws
His Turks t' adore aright the Supernal Cause: — "
63 - C 4
THE IllSPAXO-XOTniAX-TUSCAX BRANCH.
THE course of our history of the Wynne family, however,
leads us in a different direction from that which we have
followed in the preceding chapters of this model work. We
must mention the. fortunes of Gerard, one of the elder sons
of Sieur de Ilauteville, who, whether from a difference in disposi-
tion or because the feoffs which he secured from the Pope through
the influence of his elder brothers, lay so far away from the
scenes of activity of his Norman compatriots that he was forced
to fall in the ways of his Italian neighbors, and live a less turbu-
lent and more prosaic life than his brethren in southern Italy,
certain it is that we can find but little concerning him in contem-
poraneous history. The position of podesta in Italy corresponded
somewhat to that of keeper or governor. Certain it is that his
family grew and flourished in Tuscany for many years, forming
the feudal family of the Gherardini, one of the most important
in Florence. In 1212 we find them allied with the Bnondelmonti
and other families arrayed upon the side of the Guclph faction
in internecine strife, and, being unsuccessful by reason of the
German emperor siding with their opponents, the Ghibbelines,
they were driven out of the city of Florence and retired to Pistoja,
where they had a stronghold. In 1292 the family became in-
volved in another factional fight, this time against the Bnondel-
monti, and in the prosecution of the struggle again succeeded in
establishing themselves in Florence as a member of the Bianci
faction against the Xeri or Guelph party.
In 1304 a disastrous fire broke out in the city, during one of
the tumults which were of frequent occurrence, and almost wiped
out the Gherardini quarter of the city. In 130S the family had
again changed front amid Tuscan politics, and we find Gherardo
Bordoni in company with his old enemy, Corso Donati, fighting
together furiously against the populace of Florence. Although
largely outnumbered, the leaders and their adherents succeeded
in fighting their way out of the city, but Gherardo was so griev-
ously wounded that he died upon the bridge of Affrico, while
Corso was captured and murdered. In 1332 we find Gherardino
Spinolo rich enough to purchase the city of Lucca for three thou-
sand florins from a company of German lanzncehts who had cap-
tured it. The Florentines, however, disputed his purchase and
finally dislodged him from the city. In 1352, however, we find
the Gherardini again in Florence, still as insubordinate as ever.
After an unsuccessful attempt to overturn the city government of
the Ghibellines, Lotteringo Gherardini was accused, arrested and
condemned to death, but by his influence and money he corrupted
the authorities and the sentence was remitted upon payment of
Gerard had married in Normandy, before coming south, and
brought his family and household goods with the evident intention
of making Italy his permanent home. His position and talents
gave him an influence in the Tuscan state which enabled him to
form matrimonial alliances of importance, and brought tinder his.
leadership a clan which ultimately developed into a distinct fac-
tion in the then social and political makeup of Italian affairs.
In furtherance of this method we find that one of his daughters,
Fngarrita, was given in marriage to Ofhero, a scion of an impor-
tant family of Spanish or liasqne origin, who had come to Flor-
ence several generations before, and who were allied by marriage
with the De Aledicis, a family at that time obscure, but who lat-
terly dominated Tuscany for several centuries. We give on
another page the genealogy of this Spanish family, as far as his-
tory lias left a record thereof. To his name Othero was prefixed
that of Dominus, which would appear singular unless we con-
jecture that the young man had been educated for the priesthood,
but had, either at the call of love or inclination, forsaken that
path, and preferred a state of matrimony and a more enlivening
career in the secular world. Shortly after his marriage Othero
and his wife gathered their few worldly goods together and started
£ ' —
out to seek their fortunes. They arrived in Normandy about the
year 1050, no doubt revisiting the birthplace of the fair Engar-
rita. Now at this time Edward the Confessor was King of Eng-
land, and that monarch, though Saxon born, had been bred in
Xonnandy, and had imbibed all those ideas of chivalry and ele-
gance of which the Xorman-Ercnch people were pre-eminent in
those days, and which were so sadly lacking among his Saxon
courtiers. Certain it is that he encouraged Normans to immigrate
to his country and gave them official positions and countenance,
so that England was looked upon by the bold spirits of the main-
land as the Eldorado in which to make or mend their fortunes.
At any rate we find Dominus Other, our hero, safely domiciled
in the island and already in position of a profitable office and
some property near Windsor. In fact, he seems to have been
appointed by the king superintendent of the great Forest of
Windsor, then one of the great royal hunting grounds. But a
very short time thereafter King Edward died, and leaving no
direct heir, the throne was usurped by the Saxon earl, Harold,
son of Godwin, who claimed on account of some old relationship
in the line back to Alfred the Great. Saxon public opinion sup-
porting him, Harold made short work of the foreign officeholders
and quickly drove away all whom he could not capture and exe-
cute. Our hero fled overseas and abode in Normandy. The duke
of this country, William, had a claim upon the throne of England
by right of birth, also by promise of Edward himself, as well as
through the assent of Harold obtained before the death of Edward
and while Harold was virtually a prisoner in the hands of the
Norman. At any rate Duke William began to arrange for the
invasion of England, and of course welcomed every brave man
who was willing to join his forces. Suffice it to say that in 1060
the invading army landed on the English shore, the battle of
Senlac was fought and won by the Normans; King Harold being
killed in the tight, which left William without a rival. When
firmly seated on the throne William did his army justice for the
chances they had assumed and the hardships they had undergone,
and proceeded to partition the land among his officers. On this
account our ancestor recovered his former possessions, to which
much more Mas added, and he became one of the important per-
sonages of the time. In addition to the care of the forest, Othero,
. ■ ^
PRINCESS NEST A
or Other, as lie became to be called, was made castellan or governor
of Windsor Castle, which was kept as a part of the royal demesnes,
and obtained grants of freehold in several other counties of Eng-
Othero's son, Walter, was born at Windsor, and married a lady
named Beatrice, by whom he had five sons, William, Walter,
Robert, Maurice and Reinald. By a later marriage he was united
with Gladys, daughter of Rhiwallon, Prince of North Wales, by
whom he had a son, Gerald. There may also have been daughters
born of these unions, but we have not been able to find any his-
Of the fortunes of these children and their descendants we find
mention in the Doomsday Book and other sources. This so-called
Doomsday Book is nothing less than a census of the landowners
of England in the year lOSli, or twenty years after the Xorman
conquest. To this is added the extent of each individual's posses-
sions, and in fact a list of taxables due to the general government,
with the liens, services and incumbrances thereon. In Doomsday
Walter Fitz-Other appears as a tenant-in-chief in a compact block
of counties: Berkshire, Bucks, Middlesex, Surrey and Hants. He
also held Winchtield in Hampshire under Chertsey Abbey. At first
sight there is not much to connect him with Windsor or its forest,
but investigation reveals the facts that at Windsor itself he held
on the royal manor one and three-quarter hides and some wood-
lands; that at Knitbury, another Berkshire manor, he held half a
hide "which King Edward had given to his predecessor" out of
the royal demesne for the custody of the forest (propter forcstam
custodiendam) ; that of the great royal manor of Woking in Surrey
Walter held three-fourths of a hide, which King Edward "had
similarly given out of the manor to a certain forester," and that
in or near Kingston-on-Thames he had given land to a man to
whom he had "entrusted the keeping of the king's brood mares
(equas sylvaticas)." These hints prepare us for the evidence to
which we are about to come, that he held a wood called "Bagshot"
at the time of the survey (though Doomsday does not say so), and
that he and his heirs had the keeping of the great Forest of Wind-
sor. He was also, we shall find, Castellan of Windsor, while in
his private capacity as a tenant-in-chief he hold a barony reckoned
at fifteen or twenty knights' fees and owing fifteen knights as
castle guard to Windsor.
Our next glimpse of him after Doomsday Book is afforded by
the Abington Cartulary, which records in a most interesting entry
that Walter Fitz-Other, Castellan of Windsor, restored to Abbot
Faricius the woods of "Yirdelle" and "Bagshot," which he had
held by consent of the abbot's predecessors, Aethelelm and
Kainabl. It adds that he had made this restoration in the first
place at Windsor Castle, and that he afterwards sent his wife
Beatrice, with bis son William, to Abingdon, that they might con-
firm what be himself had done "at home." From this entry we
learn that Walter was living after A. D. 1100, for Abbot Faricius
ruled the house 1100-10. We also learn that his wife's name,
which had never, I believe, been rightly given before, was given
as Beatrice, and that "his home" was Windsor Castle. Lastly,
we may see, I think, an allusion to the loss, for the time, of these
woods in the Doomsday entry of the abbey's manor of Winchfield
(Wenosfelle), which mentions four bides are in the king's forest
(p. 59) ; in other words, Walter, I suspect, had added them to
Windsor Forest as its custodian ; and if he did this, as alleged, in
the time of Abbot Aethelelm (who died 1084), they would be in-
cluded in the king's forest at the time of Doomsday survey (1086).
Walter was succeeded by his son William, of whom we have
already beard. In 111G we find him confirmed by royal writ as
the custodian of Windsor Forest. The invaluable Pipe Roll of
1130 shows us William Fitz-Walter in charge of Windsor Forest
in that and the preceding year. He farmed its profits from the
Crown for a "census" of £13 a year (the same figures as are
found under Henry II), out of which "the parker" was paid a
penny a day; while £1, 6s, Od went in tithes to the Bishopric of
Salisbury. We again meet with William Fitz-Walter in that
charter of the Empress Maud or Matilda to Geoffrey de Mande-
ville, which may be assigned to 1142 (Mandeville, p. 163). She
grants therein to Geoffrey that William may have his hereditary
constablesbip of Windsor Castle and lands.
William was succeeded by a son, William, to whom King Henry
II confirmed the lands of his father, William Fitz-Walter, and
of his grandfather, Walter Fitz-Other. This William is con-
stantly mentioned in the Pipe Polls of King Henry II as among
those who supervised building operations at Windsor Castle. He
married Christina dc Wilian, who was a tenant by knight service
Vj?s»w« ^^oCr^t-^^ IREI
Reijn of Beniy VII.
EMI tfempimrfiuWn /rAi
MAP OF IRELAND (Norman)
on the Montfiehet fief, in 1166. By her he had two sons, Walter
anil William. They divided the barony in 11 OS. Walter was the
ancestor by a daughter of the Hodengs. From William, in whose
share Stanwell was included, descended Andrew Windsor, created
Lord Windsor of Stanwell by Henry VIII, from whom de-
scended in the female line the present Lord Windsor.
Robert, the second son of Walter Fitz Other, inherited from
his father Little Easton, which was the head of a barony of ten
fees, which was confirmed to him by Henry I, and winch was
liable, like the fief of his elder brother, to castle guard at Windsor.
William, the son of Robert, obtained a fresh confirmation of it
from Henry II, and William's daughter and heir brought it to a
The next of Walter Fitz Other's sons was Maurice, called
Maurice de Windsor. He was in high favor under Henry I, and
held high office in his country. We find him excused his Dane-
geld in the Pipe Roll of 1130, and thus learn that he held lands
in no fewer than eight counties: Dorset, Essex, Xorthants, Nor-
folk, Suffolk, Beds, Berks and Middlesex. The fact that Maurice
died without issue is proved by the succession of his nephew,
Ralph de Hastings, as his heir in lands and office.
Of Reinald Fitz Walter no record has been found except the
bare fact of his birth and christening. Whether he lived to ma-
turity or died in youth, or whether he entered the priesthood and
buried his real name under a clerical pseudonym (a practice com-
mon at that time) will probably never be known.
The next in order is Gerald de Windsor (or Fitz Other), the
fifth son, who was half-brother to the foregoing, having had a dif-
ferent, mother. Burke, the leading British genealogist, gives
'"Gladys, daughter of Rhiwallon, King of Xorth Wales," as his
mother. As our story follows the fortunes of this Gerald it will
be well to enter into more details touching his movements. Xow
about this time the Norman chiefs were pressing upon the Welsh
borders in ever increasing numbers, each greedy adventurer seek-
ing to carve out a domain for himself and his armed retainers.
One of the principal nobles who engaged in these military cru-
sades was Arnulph de Montgomery, son of that Roger, Earl of
Shrewsbury, whose family overrun nearly the whole of South
Wales. To protect his territory and hold it in subjection Arnulph
built castles throughout the laud, and ended by building an enor-
mous fortress at Pembroke, in the extreme southwest part of
Wales, where a convenient harbor insured his communication by
sea. Now, among the knights who followed his fortunes was our
ancestor, Gerald Fit/. Walter, and so fully bad he impressed his
patron, both by his valor and his judgment, and by the exhibition
of that same rare executive ability which before time won for his
father and grandfather the superintendence of large affairs, as
evidenced by their building of castles and administration of
royal demesnes, he was chosen by Arnulpb to both build and
captain Pembroke Castle. In the history of the Geraldines by
Giraldus Cambric-nsis, Gerald is mentioned as the "constable or
captain of Arnulpb cle Montgomery, who built the Castle of
Pembroke and placed him in charge under William Rufus. The
Brut tells us that in the early days of the reign of Henry I, Gerald
was sent with others to Ireland by bis Lord Arnulpb to seek the
hand of King Muscard's daughter for him and was successful.
He seems to have become a favorite with Henry I, for \ipon the
downfall of the family of Montgomery, wherein they suffered the
confiscation of their estates, the king confirmed Gerald in his posi-
tion of Castellan of Pembroke, and bestowed other favors upon
him. His gallant and successful defense of that fortress during
one of those great Welsh uprising wherein every other Norman
castle in South Wales was captured by the native clans contributed
not a little to the regard with which he was looked upon in court.
In compensation for his heroism, and, we suspect, to strengthen
his position in the Welsh country, King Henry I bestowed upon
him the hand of the Princess Xesta, the sister of Griffith, Prince
of South Wales, who, although at the time a fugitive dwelling
abroad, was very puissant with his countrymen at home, and who
afterward re-established bis authority over his hereditary do-
mains. As the result of this union Gerald was enabled to enlarge
his authority over a large part of the country, and regain for the
Xornians much that they had lately lost. As Giraldus, the his-
torian, puts it, "by whom the southern coast of Wales was saved
to the English." Gerald obtained from the king certain grants a
few miles inland from Pembroke, called Little Cengarth, where
he built a new castle or summer home in the mountains; "there
he deposited all his riches, with his wife, his heirs, and all dear
gi^.<vs>c,^jC: : Lc u:;<>.->-
to him; and he fortified it with a ditch and wall, and a gateway
with a lock to it." This was in 1105.
Xext vear occurred the famous and tragic incident of the sur-
prise of this castle by Owen, son of Cadogan, Prince of Powys, at
night ; the narrow escape of Gerald, and the capture of his family
and treasure. We can do no hotter than reproduce the following
account of the episode, as illustrating the conditions surrounding
life in that country during those times:
"Xow this was about the year 110G, and Cadogan, who is among
the outstanding princes of Welsh history, though he suffered va-
rious fortunes, was keeping Christmas and holding a great Eistedd-
fod in South Wales, to which everybody of distinction flocked.
Among the guests came his son Owen, who lived in his father's
second kingdom of Powys. Owen was a heady youth, passionate
and selfish, and absolutely reckless when pursuing any object of
his love or hate. Amid the revelry of his father's court he heard
such rumors of the beauty of the Princess Xesta that he rode to
Little Cengarth and. under the plea of a remote relationship,
gained access to her presence. The lady was more beautiful than
even his wildest visions had imagined ; and he at once formed a
resolution which even for the year 1106 was a sufficiently au-
dacious one. For, returning to his father's place, he collected
privily a band of youths as reckless as himself, and under cover of
night he returned and broke into the castle of Gerald, which he
proceeded to set on fire, having first surrounded the chamber where
Gerald and his wife slept. Gerald had just time to pull up the
hoards in a cupboard and escape down a drain, while his wife and
her two children were seized and carried off by Owen and his
companions, and brought in hot haste across Wales to Powys,
where, according to tradition, they were secured in the inaccessible
seclusion of Eglwyseg. Great, indeed, was the uproar. Poor King
Cadogan came all the way from South Wales to entreat his son
to restore the wife of Gerald — Henry's prime favorite and Con-
stable of Pembroke. Xothing, however, would stir the headstrong
Owen, though he did at last consent to send back the children. All
Wales was set by the ears, while Henry raged upon his distant
throne and started the whole border machinery to wreak ven-
geance on everything belonging to poor Cadogan, who, of course,
was entirely innocent of offense. Every Norman baron who had
got a footing in South Wale? saw in the general confusion a chance
to enlarge it. Owen fled to Ireland, Cadogan was stripped of
Powys by a rival Welsh family, and of much of South Wales.
Princess Xesta was finally restored to her husband, and the seeth-
ing country, after two or three years of war, settled down again
to one of its brief periods of what in those days passed for peace.
The episode closed in a fashion truly dramatic, and not the less
characteristic. It fell out that Owen, who with Ireland at his
back, never ceased from troubling Wales, was making a foray into
that country upon the same side as the man he had wronged. To
be strictly accurate, it was Gerald who first discovered the situa-
tion, and regardless of the common cause — not one of principle,
we may be sure — in which they were both engaged, at once sought
out his ancient enemy. A fight to the death ensued, in which the
riotous Welsh prince fell by the hand of the Xorman baron he had
in earlier years so infamously injured, and now for the first time
met face to face."
Behind the old stone Fortress of Eglwyseg is a deep glen, through
which a narrow trail winds over rocks and heather and woodland,
which is still named after this son of Cadogan, and through which
he came bearing the fair '"Helen of Wales" after his wild adven-
ture at Pembroke.
Before leaving the subject of Pembroke we quote the following:
"Armdph dc Montgomery conquered Pembroke, called 'Little
England beyond Wales,' in the eleventh century. He landed
where the town now stands. Gerald de Windsor became his
deputy or constable, and William Rufus the king came to help
in the invasion. So when the castles were built it became crown
property with He Windsor as governor. English colonists settled
there, to whom were added Dutch refugees from the terror of the
Spanish tyranny in the Xetherlands. These colonists did not
amalgamate with the Welsh to any great extent, and are to-day
perfectly distinct. Pembroke Castle was one of the largest and
strongest fortresses in the whole kingdom, and still shows noble
ruins. It stands upon a roeky promontory in an inlet of Milford
Haven. It has withstood many sieges and was never taken, except
by Cromwell in the civil war. It was the birthplace of 'Henry
VII, the first Welsh king of England, and head of the House of
Tudor. It was also the birthplace of Maurice Eitz-Gerald, one
of the ancestors of the Wynne family." Many of the buildings in
part survive, and the round keep still lifts its eighty feet of ma-
sonry intact ahove the ground.
Here our Gerald lived with his beautiful Welsh wife and reared
those children who were destined to achieve such prominence in
later years. lie had three sons, William, Maurice and David, and
three daughters, Moinea, Agnes and Angaretta. Of Gerald's death
we have no precise mention, but presume that it must have been
prior to 1 1 1 0.
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I 1 i
THE royal family of Cunedda was the dominant family in
all Wales since the dawn of authentic history ; and, in fact,
they come to us strikingly distinct from the darker and more
intricate shades of old Cambrian legend and mythology. The head
of the house rose to greatness as soon as the Roman power began
to decline — about the end of the fifth century. The chief scat of
their power was at Deganwy, now a desolate and insignificant ruin
overlooking the thriving seaside resort of Llandudno, but still com-
manding views of seas and islands over which the kingly progeni-
tors of the Wynne family once held sway.
Maelgwn, one of the first noted members of the family, was a
vigorous monarch, ami was the pioneer in efforts to restore the
union of Welsh septs, which bad been much disintegrated by
Roman policy, and which had fallen into complete anarchy when
once the guiding band of Rome was withdrawn. He bound his im-
mediate neighbors in a league, created a navy with its base at
Mons, and from Deganwy he advanced southward, forcing the in-
dependent kinglets to recognize bis paramount lordship. Tradi-
tion tells us that on one occasion he invoked a council of chiefs at
Aberdovey, whereat they sat in their chairs upon tbc seashore to
consider affairs of state. Concerning the question of who should
be king of all Britain, they decided that he who could sit longest in
his chair despite the rising of the tide was to rule over them. Now
Maeldav the Old had prepared for Maelgwn a chair made of
waxed wings, and it floated after all the other chairs had been
Maelgwn was an ambitions and not over scrupulous sovereign,
and although the general effects of his reign were beneficent and
served to amalgamate the turbulent tribes and insure the final tri-
umph of Christianity in its long struggle with heathenism, yet
Gildas the priest thundered against him from the text: "Woe to
thee that spoilcth, shall thou not be spoiled I" Maelgwn died of
the yellow plague about the year A. D. 550. The influx of the
Saxons and the Angles from the east during the latter part of his
reign, cut away a large portion of his dominions, confining their
limit under his heir, Cadwallon, who struggled long and desper-
ately against overwhelming odds, and at last died fighting near the
Great Wall in 025.
His son Cadwaladr succeeded to a vanishing crown, a distracted
country and a plague-stricken people. At about this time the
Arthurian legends Ik gan to arise and assume the forms which tra-
dition has brought down to modern times. With the death of
Cadwaladr the struggle for the recovery of northwestern England
and the chain of fortresses which united the Cymbrian of Wales
with the Piet of Scotland was given up forever. During the next
succeeding centuries the struggle was to retain the supremacy of
the family over the tribal chiefs. For half a century this pre-
dominance was in abeyance and the princes were practically inde-
pendent. But with the rise of the Mercian kingdom on the east
under Ethelbald the Welsh turned to Rhodri Malwynod, the grand-
son of Cadwaladr, for- protection. With varying success he in the
main held his own, and beat back the Saxon wolves who in ever
increasing numbers were investing him by sea and land.
This king died in 755, and, unfortunately, left two sons, Conan
and Howell, who fought against each other, decimating their
strength, to the advantage of Offa, the Mercian king, who ex-
tended his dominion over considerable Welsh territory. He built
a famous dyke from the mouth of the Dee to the mouth of the
Taff to mark his boundary. The remains of this dyke can still
be followed. Offa's son, Cenwulf, still further harried Wales,
breaking through to Dyved, in the south, and in the north as far
as Snowdon, burning the royal city of Deganwy, the old home of
Gwynedd. In the midst of these tribulations, to which was added
the fierce incursions on the seaside by the Xorse pirates, Conan
died in 815, and was speedily followed to the grave by his brother
°VL*f«- od.'.S.'*"" \*5a'.,>.,0^
7o //lustrafr Me Aforman Conauest
D Aorman fastis
* A6ieys or Pr/oncs
MAP OF WALES (Ancient)
Conan left a daughter as heiress, whose husband, Merwin — a
blood relative — ascended the throne as the sole representative of
the family of Maelgwn. Merwin struggled with varying success
against the waning power of Mercia, which kingdom was in turn
attacked upon the east by the rising power of Wessex. In 844
Merwin was succeeded by bis son, Rhodri, surnamed the Great,
a cotemporary of the Wessex king, Alfred the Great.
Rhodri united his tribes and defeated the Danes in a great
battle, killing Horni; their leader. He became all-powerful
throughout the length and breadth of Wales, and partitioned the
country among bis six warlike sons as governors under him. But
a powerful combination of Xorsc foes began their march south-
ward from Xorthumbria, and their advance proved irresistible
both to Welsh and Saxon. In STG Rhodri was a fugitive in Ire-
land, and in 87S Alfred was in hiding among the fastnesses of
Athelney. Rhodri compromised his affairs with the invaders, and
came back as their ally; but in ST7, while the Danes had thrown
their whole force against Alfred, a Mercian irruption extended as
far as Mons, and there, in a great battle for which they were un-
prepared, both Rhodri and his brother were slain.
Rhodri's sons soon avenged their father's death at the battle of
Conway, and by alliance with Wessex they drove out both the
Dane and the Mercian. A lull in the foreign attacks was speedily
followed by revolts of the tribal princes ; and Anarawd, son of
Rhodri, had to chastise the princes of Ceredigion and Istrad Towy
and the whole south country. Finally Anarawd, Cadell and ATero-
wyn, the surviving sons of Rhodri, entered into an alliance with
King Alfred and gave up their Xorthumbrian allies. Anarawd
and Cadell died in the beginning of the tenth century, shortly after
the death of Alfred the Great.
One of the sons of Cadell was Howell, who became the great
lawgiver of AVales, as Alfred was the lawgiver of Saxon England,
and as Charlemagne had become the lawgiver of France. He was
not a great prince, and lie ruled with his brothers in Dyved. The
only present copies of these laws were written three or four hun-
dred years after their compilation by Howell, and before any great
alterations were made. They give us a bewitching mass of pictur-
escpio customs — many showing the old states of society, and some
showing the beginning of a new order. The old svstem was tribal
and exceedingly clannish — in fact, patriarchal. At the head of
the whole system stood the king paramount, the head of the family
of Gwynedd, who ruled at Aberffraw; to him, alone, was gold paid
as tribute. Then came the King of South Wales, at Dynevor or
Dyved; next, the King of Powys or East Wales, at Mathravd.
Each of these divisions has a version of its own of the code drawn
up by Howell.
"In the great hall of Aberffraw the king was inviolable; the
violation of his protection, or violence in his presence, could only
be atoned for by a great fine — a hundred cows, a white bull with
red ears, for each cantrev he possessed, a rod of gold as long as
himself and as thick as his little finger, and a plate of gold as
broad as his face and as thick as a ploughman's nail. His sons,
nephews and any relatives he chose to summon surrounded him,
and could make free progress among his subjects. Of the great
officers, the chief of the household came next to the king ; he was,
above all others, the executive officer of the court. The chief judge
occupied at night the seat occupied by the king during the day, so
that justice should always be obtainable. The duties ami privi-
leges of all the members of the king's retinue are minutely de-
scribed; such ;ts those of the chief falconer, who had to lodge in
the king's barn, lest the smoke should affect the hawks' sight, but
who gnes on progress like a king among the king's villeins; or those
of the bard of the household, who is to sing to God and to the
king, and to receive royal gifts; or those of the king's huntsman,
who needs not swear, exci pt by his horn and leashes, and who
could not be forced to answer any claim unless cited before he
puts his boots mi in the morning; or of the medieiner, who is in-
violable while attending the sick, who gets his light at night, and
his regular fee for herb and red ointment and blood-letting; or
those of the unpopular summoner, whose spear was not to be more
than three yards long, lest his approach should be discovered, and
who got a sieve of oats and an empty egg shell as damages if he
was attacked while sitting in court instead of standing.
"Some had exceedingly simple duties, like the hereditary foot-
holder of the king, or the royal candle-bearer. Others had much
to do, like the door-ward, whose difficult and miscellaneous duties
were an excellent training fur the passages of wit between him and
the strangers who demanded or begged for leave to pass through
.._ .. ' " ' r ~ n : '
A GLIMPSE OF SNOWDON. WALES
Under the king, owing tribute and service to him, were the
tribal groups. Sometimes they would be governed by a son or
nephew or brother, whom the king chose to set over them. The
tribal chief was a king in miniature — he represented bis people;
he was advised by an elected chief of the household, and helped
by the avenger, who led the tribe during a blood feud; be pre-
sided over the tribal court; he admitted youths to their tribal
rights, and he was the intermediary between the king and the
The land was tilled by family groups, who remained together
to the third generation, when the land was redivided by the process
of gavel-kind, and new homesteads formed. Residence in the
family household — the big hall built around a hearth where the
fire never died out — carried with it a share of the family land,
and the privileges of a governing class. For there was a subject
population, who paid tribute to the free tribesmen, who had no
pride of kin, and into whose community strangers were readily
Howell was more of a legislator than a general. His reign was
a turbulent one — what with the revolt of the princes, and the rav-
ages of Saxons, Norsemen and Danes — his kingdom was well-nigh
-ruined when the old king passed away, and his grandson, Mere-
dith, alone of the race of Rhodri, took up the reins of government.
His rule was short and troubled, and he was compelled to buy
peace of the Danish pirates who harried his country.
At his death his daughter, Angbarad, was the only represent-
ative of the direct ^iaelgwn family remaining. Her husband,
Llewelyn ap Seisyl, proved to be an able sovereign, and quickly
put down all opposition both from within and without; and it was
said of him, "bis kingdom from sea to sea was full of men and
cattle, with no poor in it, and no devastated region." Hut this
was only for a time, and before the old man died he was destined
to see bis fields harried by the Norse, his churches aflame and his
princes in revolt. He died in 1022. Angharad's son, Griffydd,
was driven from his country, which became a prey to internecine
strife until 103S, when bis people called him back, and he quickly
drove the invaders out and restored peace.
He enjoyed prosperity until he came into conflict with King
Harold of England, who invaded his kingdom and secured his
assassination. Harold ruled Wales only a short time, as be soon
after was overthrown by William the Conqueror at the battle of
Senlac, an event which introduces the Norman supremacy into
The half-brothers of Griffydd, Bleddyn and Rhywallon, whom
Harold appointed to govern Wales, set up as independent kings,
and after defeating and killing Meredith and Ithel, sons of Grif-
fydd — in which battle Rhywallon also fell, Bleddyn became sole
Prince of Powys and Gwynedd, although his authority was dis-
puted in South Wales. But soon the Normans swarmed into
Wales and in the end subjugated it. Bleddyn fell, and shortly
afterwards his nephews, who succeeded him, suffered the same
The destinies of the family then reverted to Griffydd ap Conan,
living in exile on the Irish coast, and tracing direct lineage from
Rhodri and Maelgwn. lie made several attempts to recover the
kingdom, but without success, until at last be fell in with another
fugitive king, Rhys ap Tudor, the heir of Debeubartb or South
Wales. "'Like Griffydd himself, Rhys was of the race of Mael-
gwn; Griffydd came from Anarawd, son of Rhodri; Rhys from
Cadell, son of Rhodri. The home of Rhys' family was Dynevor,
which stands on a green knoll that rises abruptly from the lovely
valley of the Towy. After the death of Bleddyn, the usurping
over-king, the vengeance of Trahaiarn had caused the flight of
the royal race from Debeubartb. Among them was Rhys ap
Tudor, who spent some years of exile in Brittany. He had tried
to regain bis kingdom, but had to face an alliance of enemies —
Meilir of Powys, Trahaiarn of Arwystli, and Carodac of Gwent
and Morgamug. He finally took refuge at St. David's, on the
extreme western part of Wales.
The two princes, Rhys and Griffydd, made common cause,
and, uniting their clansmen, marched against Trahaiarn. The
bitter's forces hurried down, like the many streams from Plin-
limmon, to meet the invaders, and somewhere in South Ceredigion,
in 107'.', the forces met in the decisive battle of Myvedd Cam.
The two-edged battle axes of the Danes, the long spears of the
Irishmen, the irresistible march of the men of Gwynedd behind
their shining shields, and the valor of the princes themselves won
the dav. Trahaiarn fell in the heat of the battle, and the scattered
CORWEN AND VALLEY OF THE DEE
an Irish fleet of twenty-three sail, and recruited a considerable
army. He captured the island of Mons, now termed Anglesey,
and from there ravaged the coast both east and south. After de-
livering the country beyond the Conway, Griffydd married An-
gharad, daughter of a chieftain of that country. "Tall and
stately was she, with fair hair and large blue eyes; wise of counsel,
very liberal of drink and food and alms."
Meanwhile the anti-Xorman revolt spread into other provinces
— from Powys to Dyved. Cadogan, son of Bleddyn, a branch of
the House of Maelgwn, had stepped into Rhys' place, and in
1094 all the castles of Dyved had fallen except that of Pembroke,
which was kept by the skill and artifice of its castellan, Gerald
of "Windsor, whose genealogy from this time forward intermingles
with that of the Wynne family, and has been more minutely de-
tailed in a former chapter.
In 1095 Cadogan stormed the Castle of Montgomery, and defeated
a Xorman army who tried to retake it, and this success brought
King William Rufus to Wales. Two armies pierced to Snow-
don, but were driven back by storms. Several times the Red King'
harried the land, but unsuccessfully, and when he returned to
AVindsor the only Welsh castle in Xorman hands was Pembroke,
held by the redoubtable Gerald. So the king left to the earls of
Chester and Shrewsbury the task of bridling the Welsh. The
latter earl made an alliance with the sons of Bleddyn and en-
trusted much of his wealth to their keeping what time he broke
with Henry I and refused to appear at court. Henry promptly
attacked and overcame him, and skillfully drew Iowerth from his
alliance with Shrewsbury. Afterwards both Meredith and Iowerth
were imprisoned by Henry, leaving what territory still remained
to the Welsh under the dominion of Griffydd ap Conan, and Cado-
gan, the remaining son of Bleddyn. Shortly thereafter the race
of Bleddyn was driven from power, and practically exterminated,
whereupon the elder branch of the Mielgwns recovered their
When Rhys ap Tudor fell in battle in 1093, and his daughter
Xesta was held in ward by the English court, his young son, Grif-
fith, was carried by his kinsmen to Ireland for safety. After
awhile he came back, living sometimes with his sister Xesta, the
wife of Gerald, at Pembroke, and at other times with Griffydd ap
: . .. '- • . - -
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HARLKCH CASTLE, WALES
Conan, in Gwynedd. The King of England tried to secure his
person to prevent his heading a revolt, and he escaped to North
Wales. Here Henry sought to bribe Griffydd ap Conan to give him
up, which the Welsh king refused to do. But young Griffith sought
sanctuary in the church at Aberdaron; thence fled to the vale of
Towy, where he organized an army, and, using the forest as a base,
proceeded to attack the Norman castles. Narbearth, Llandovery,
Swansea and Carmarthan were attacked successfully, and Kid-
welly was abandoned; while the whole of Ceredigion rose at the
prince's call. To meet this new uprising Henry recalled Owen
from France and sent him to Wales to offset Griffith's growing-
power. One night, while Owen and his escort were pursuing a
number of mountaineers, he fell in with Gerald of Pembroke and
a company of Flemings. Gerald, learning that his old enemy,
Owen, was in command of the other party, fell on with fury, and
in the melee met Owen and dispatched him with his own hand.
Thus ended the career of one whose turbulent but vacillating
spirit had done much harm to the fatherland. He was absolutely
a man without honor.
At this time nearly the whole of Wales was governed by princes
of the old royal race — ancestors of the Wynne family. Griffydd
ap Conan was the eldest, and was firmly fixed in Gwynedd ;
Meredith, the younger son of Eleddyn, grew powerful in Powys,
and on his death in 1132 divided his territory between his sons
Madoc and Owen Cyveiliog. Griffith ap Rhys married Gwenllian,
daughter of Griffydd ap Conan, and extended his power in the
south. On the death of Henry I he grew bolder, and a league of
Norman barons was formed against him. While he was away
arranging for aid from his father-in-law the Normans defeated
his army, led by his wife, and afterward beheaded the heroic
woman while a prisoner. But the two Griffiths quickly wiped out
the defeat by completely overthrowing the Normans in the vale of
Towy — a battle in which the sons of Gerald were antagonists of
their Welsh uncle, Griffith. This victory was followed by the
speedy reconquest of much of the land on which castles had been
But in the next year, 1137, Griffydd a]) Conan and Griffith ap
Khys both died. The former is described as the "sovereign and
protector and peacemaker of all Wales," while the latter is de-
scribed as "the light and the strength and the gentleness of the men
of the South." GrifFydd ap Conan after a checkered and turbulent
youth had turned statesman, and by patient effort bad consolidated
his kingdom so that it remained to his descendants intact for more
than a century and a half after his death. With the union of the
separate branches of the Welsh stock it seemed as though the peace
and prosperity of the country was assured. Griflydd ap Conan left
two sons, Owen Gwyuedd and Cadwalader, while Griffith ap Rhys
left four lusty sons, the eldest of which — Anarawd — was pledged
in marriage to one of the daughters of Owen Gwynedd. But this
bright prospect only lasted for a brief season, and was destroyed
by an act of sudden violence as unexpected as it was disastrous.
This was nothing less than the murder of young Anarawd by
Cadwalader during a dispute about boundary. The popularity of
the young man, the imminence of his wedding day, the trust he
placed in his northern cousins, added to the universal horror at
Cadwalader's hasty deed. Owen Gwynedd had to choose between
his own red-handed brother and the wronged young prince of the
house of Griffith. lie did not hesitate, but sent his sons, Howell
and Conan, to drive Cadwalader out of the country. This act
made the latter a determined and reckless foe, both to his kinsmen
and country, and he proved a veritable firebrand where he had
before been a loyal supporter.
But Owen's sons were men of dauntless courage and made head
against the Norman barons and their uncle's inroads, while as-
sisting the young princes of the south against the English lords,
and aiding Madoc ap Meredith against Ranulf of Chester. In
1152 Owen's dream of Welsh unity again seemed to be realized.
His over-lordship was generally recognized; but, alas, it came too
late. The English civil war ended with the peaceful accession of
Henry IT and this was quickly followed by the renewed Norman
supremacy in Wales.
NOTES OX WELSH MATTERS.
Glan Bran, in the valley of the Towy, Breeonshire, was once a
seat of the Wynnes.
Near Llandilo, in the Towy valley, is the great rock of Dynevor,
surmounted with the old fortress of the same name, whose history
dates back to 870, when it was founded by "Rhodri Mawr," or
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CARKW CASTLE. WALES
Roderick the Great, who was king of all Wales as far east as
Salisbury and Chester. For many years his sway was undis-
puted, and at his death the kingdom was divided into three parts
and given to his three sons. These divisions gave rise to the king-
doms of Gwyncdd ( Xorth Wales), Powvs (mid-Wales) and
Dehenharth (South Wales). Of these, Gwynedd (Land of the
Wynnes) was recognized as paramount, and received a shadowy
sort of deference from the others only so long as her rulers could
enforce it with bill and sword.
The laws of Howell Dda were made in the tenth century and
deposited in Dynevor. He was grandson of Rhodri and Prince
of South Wales. The laws fixed the price of the smallest article
of trade, and regulated styles, manners and customs, besides pro-
viding graduated penalties for every sort of public or private of-
In one of the collections made of the songs of the old Welsh bards,
appears the following chant improvised upon the deeds and death
of one of the chiefs of the old family of Wynnes. It is the work
of Llywarch Hen, who, next to Taliesin, was probably the greatest
of his fraternity. The ode dates back to the sixth century. Much
of its weird beauty and pathos is lost in the translation. It de-
scribes the death of the poet's patron, Cyndyllan, who, with his
twenty-four stalwart sons, fell in battle with the Saxon invaders at
the ford of Glorias. Here it is in part:
"The house of Cyndyllan is gloomy this night
Without fire and without song.
Roofless and dark it stands, an open waste,
That was once the resort of strong warriors.
Without, the eagle screams loud, he has swallowed fresh drink,
Heart blood of Cyndyllan the fair.
The house of Cyndyllan is the seat of chill grief,
• Encircled with wide-spreading silence.
Lovely it stands on the top of the rock of Hydwyth,
Without its lord, without guests,
Without the circling feasts."
Gwynn, the best beloved son, strong and large of stature, was
the first to fall under the spears of the foemen, and the poet de-
scribes how the father's heart is filled with bitter grief as he
laments for bis favorite child :
"Let the wave break noisily;
Let it cover the shore as the lances meet in battle,
Let it cover the plain as the lances join in shock,
For Gwynn has been slain at the ford of Morlas.
O Gwynn !
Woe to him who is too old
Since he has lost you.
Woe to him who is too old to avenge you !
Behold the tomb of Gwynn the Fearless!
Sweetly a bird sang above the head of Gwynn
Before they covered him with turf!
But the song broke the heart of Llywarch Hen!"
Waco, a Norman-French writer of the tenth century, in tran-
scribing the writings of Geoffrey of Monmouth, who originally
compiled the legends of King Arthur and his court, added a con-
tinuation which connected the ancient Britons with the Trojans.
As the story of King Arthur is originally Welsh, this authority
may have been in the mind of Giraldus, the historian, who con-
nects the Fitzgeralds with Trojan ancestry. All these legends
were reintroduced into England by Layamon, a priest, who re-
wrote the entire set of legends, including Wace's Trojan songs,
by command of King John in the twelfth century. The story of
the Holy Grail was added by Walter Map under the inspiration of
From an old MS. containing the returns of a board of commis-
sioners appointed by King Henry VII to inquire into his Welsh
pedigree, we glean the following genealogical list of ancestry. The
first part is founded mainly upon traditions and mythological
records, and the latter largely follows the Bible record. The
Welsh historians consider the myth heroes as real characters. The
Welsh claim to be the oldest civilized people in the world, and
consider their language more ancient than the Hebrew:
"1. Marchweithian was the founder of the eleventh of the
fifteen ancient tribes of Wales. This tribe is named therefrom,
and the heraldic coat of arms of the tribe were 'Marchweithian
beneath gules, a lion rampant argent, armed, languid, azure.'
From Marchweithian the line runs back as follows: 2, Llud;
3, Lien; 4, Llaniniod angel; 5, Pasgen; 6, Unien redig; 7, Cyn-
varch ; 8, Mcirchion gul ; 9, Grwst Ladlion ; 10, Cenan; 11, Coel
godebog; 12, Legvan; 13, Dehenfriant; 13, Ludbwyll ; 14, Urban;
15, Gradd; 1G, Rnned-lych; 17, Rydeyrn ; IS, Endigaid; 19, En-
deyrn ; 20, Enid (Elvid o enw erall) ; 21, Endog; 22, Eendollen ;
23, Avallareh; 24, Affeth ; 25, Beli Mawr; 20, Monegen ; 27, Cap-
poir (nc Pabo enw arall) ; 2S, Pyrr; 29, Samuel Penissell; 30,
Bhytherick; 31, Eidiol; 32, Arthvael; 33, Seissyllt ; 34, Owain;
35, Caph; 30, Blenddut; 37, Meiriawn (Merion, the old hero who
gave his name to Merionethshire) ; 3&, Gorwst; 39, Clydno; 40,
Clydawr; 11, Ithel ; 42, Trien; 43, Andrew; 44, Kerryn (ne
Tharyn o cmv arall) ; 45, Porrex; 40, Coel ; 47, Caddell; 48,
Gerant ; 19, Elidrniawr; 50, Marudd; 51, Dan; 52, Seissyll; 53,
Cephelyn; 54, Gwrgan suns drwth; 55, Beli; 50, Dyfnwal moeh
mudd ; 57, Cynwrch ; 58, Dedd niawr; 50, Antonies; 00, Seis-
syllt; 01, Gorwst; 02, Kiwalloii; 03, Cunedda; 04, Regan Ferch
Lyr; 05, Bleuddutt; 66, Rurnbaladr brias; 60, Lleni ; 07, Brutus
Darianlas; OS, Evroc Cadarn ; 69, Membyr; 70, Madoe; 71,
Loerinus ; 72, Brutus, tlie great founder of the British nation,
who led a colony from Bretagne B. C. 1130; 73, Silvius; 74, As-
eaneus ; 75, Aeneas, the hero of Virgil's Aenid; 76, Anchises;
77, Caphis; 78, Assaracus; 79, Troas, founder of Troy; 80, Erich-
thonius; 81, Dardan, King of Phrygia B. C. 1487; 82, Jupiter;
83, Saturnus; 84, Coelus; S5, Ciprius; 86, Chetini; 87, Javan;
88, Japbath; 89, Xoahen ; 90, Lamech ; 91, Hethusalem; 92,
Enos;- 93, Seth; 94, Adda: 95, Duw (God). Welsh historians
consider the pedigree authentic. From Marchweithian forward
the lines are clearly marked from written records and family tra-
dition, aided by herald bards. The Wynnes, Joneses and Cad-
waladers mentioned in this volume are descended from this an-
cient line — probably the oldest line in America.
Ex-President Grover Cleveland has Wynne blood, being de-
scended from Moses Cleveland, who married Ann, daughter of
Edward and Joanna Wynne, at Woburn, England, Sept. 20, 1G4S.
These Wynnes were relatives of Dr. Thomas Wynne.
107 -/C is'
STONE COFFIN OF LLEWELLEN THE GREAT
THE STORY OF PRINCESS NESTA.
A MONG the many remarkable characters which the princi-
*-- *- pality of Wales has produced, and that they are many
and conscipuous the history of the little mountain country
plainly attests, there are none in which the spirit, the romance
and the dreadful truth of the times enters into more fully, or in
which is more clearly limned the conditions of life under which
women were compelled to exist in those medieval days, when
might made right, and solemn statutes upheld the dreadful custom
of "le droit du seigneur" with regards to the female wards of the
king, than is set forth in the melancholy though brilliant life of
the Princess Nesta. That she was also an ancestress of the family
makes the chronicles not less interesting, nor less dubiously pain-
ful. However, a plain sense of duty renders it incumbent on the
author to tell the story as authenticated in the annals of the clan,
trusting that the gentle reader will not consider entirely from a
twentieth century standpoint the acts of a life which filled its web
and woof during the dark and turbulent period of the last decades
of the eleventh century.
Princess Nesta was the daughter of Rhys ap Tewdor, a repre-
sentative of a long line of Welsh kings running back beyond the
confines of reliable history, and who was designated by his people
as King of South Wales, but was styled by the Normans as Prince
of P/eheubarth. She was born about the year 1074, and brought
up with the king's other children in as much luxury and with as
many advantages as the wild and rude manners of the times ad-
mitted. All accounts unite in pronouncing her the most beautiful
and accomplished Welsh maiden of the day, and the old bards sing
her beauty and perfections in the rude minstrelsy for which the
Celts are so famous.
But the Xonnans were pressing upon her father's domains in
ever increasing power, anil her early life was passed in the midst
of war's alarms and the political intrigues of the times. So in
time it occurred that her brave father was killed while storming
the fortress of the Norman baron, Bernard of Xeufmarehe, at
Brecon in 101)1 , and she was taken prisoner and sent by her cap-
tors to King William Rufns, son of the Conqueror, while all the
lands of her family were confiscated. Her young brother Griffith
escaped and fled to Ireland. Thus the Princess Xesta, then a
maiden of seventeen years, gifted with a resplendent beauty and
every grace which her high lineage and her handsome stalwart race
could give in physical charm, and accomplished to the fullest ex-
tent with the mental culture which her rude time and clime could
bestow, became a ward of the crown of England, along with num-
bers of other maidens of high degree. She was appointed a maid
of honor to the queen. Xow the fate of these wards was entirely
at the command of the king. They were kept for and bestowed
upon the favorites of the court as. rewards of merit and favor —
given away very much as we in this age would present a horse or
a dog to a friend.
Xow it so happened that when William Rufus was shot to death
while hunting in the Xew Forest, near Windsor, that his younger
brother, Henry I, succeeded him on the English throne. Henry,
besides being gifted with great strength of character, a statesmen
of renown, indomitable in war and stern and stark at other times,
also possessed the sensual and luxurious traits of his cruel and
unscrupulous race. On his accession to the power and preroga-
tives of an absolute sovereign it is not to be wondered at that he
did many things which were wrongful and oppressive. Therefore,
casting his eyes about the court, the beauty of the Welsh maid
of honor attracted his attention ; and, in those days for a king
to desire was to possess, and the captive Xesta was forced into a
union with her sovereign. It is stated that a morganatic marriage
was solemnized, but the union lasted but a few years. From this
connection was born a son, Henry, who was created Duke of
Gloucester, and was afterwards killed in war with the Welsh
BANNE HARBOR. IRELAND (Now Bannow)
while leading an attack on the island of Mons (Anglesea). This
latter Henry had three sons, Meyler, Robert and Henry, who all
became famous in later years.
After the downfall of the great family of Montgomery and
the confiscation of their vast estates in Wales, King Henry be-
stowed his ward Xesta upon Gerald Fitz Walter as his wife, and
made the new husband Castellan of Pembroke Castle and presi-
dent of the whole Welsh district of Dyved. To this union were
born three sons, William, Maurice, David, and three daugh-
ters. Upon the death of Gerald, the exact date of which is
unknown, his widow married Stephen de Marisco, Castellan of
Abertivy, by whom she bore a son, Robert, who, in connection with
his half-brothers, achieved great fame in the career of the family
which 1 am about to relate, and which became a fitting sequel to
the great deeds of their Norman and Welsh ancestors.
The first mention which we find in the history of the sons of
Gerald and Xesta occurs in an account of the battle of Cardigan,
which occurred in 1130. It is described thus: Lady Nesta's
brother, Griffyd ap Rhys, whose escape to Ireland has been already
mentioned, had returned after the death of Henry I, and, rallying
his feudal retainers around him, had reconquered a large part of
his ancestral dominions. He had married Gwenllian, sister of
Owen and Cadwalader of Gwyncdd (Gwynedd means "land of the
Wynnes"). During the time Griffyd was absent in North Wales
his Norman enemies, led by Maurice of London, made an irrup-
tion into his country through the vale of Towy. The heroic
Gwenllian, rallying such of the retainers as were at hand, met the
invaders in battle, but was defeated, and she herself beheaded at
the Castle Kidwelly by her savage captor. It was an execrable
act even for that savage time, and led to swift retribution. Her
husband and brothers gathered their forces and advanced, while
all the Normans — including the sons of Gerald with the Pem-
brokeshire men — rallied to meet the storm. The battle was fought
at Cardigan. The Normans were driven, a helpless mass of fugi-
tives, to the bridge which still spans the Towy. The bridge broke
under them and great numbers were drowned. The young
Geraldines, however, escaped ; but it was in such sanguinary war-
fare that their natures were molded for the greater events of their
lives still to come.
V t Ef IS 'I F ! j .. "'
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LISMOKE CASTLE. IRELAND
IX PEADIXG the chapter in this book devoted especially to
the Geraldines, it will be noticed that Maurice Fitzgerald' of
Wales was wedded to Aline, daughter of Arnulph de -Mont-
gomery of Pembroke. As the Wynne family trace their descent
through the offspring of this couple, a few words might be said
of the illustrious family whose name heads this chapter. The
Montgomeries were of Norman origin, intermixed with French,
and at the time of the invasion of England by the Conqueror in
1056-, they were among the noblest and most influential members
of the noblesse of Normandy. The head of the house at that time
was Kogcr, Count of Ponthiou and Alencon. Imbued with that
same enterprising and adventurous spirit common to his country-
men, Count Roger brought his retainers to the duke's standard,
and so passed over into England. lie took part in the battle of
Hastings, and in all the subsequent military operations which re-
sulted in the fixing of Norman supremacy north of the British
As a recompense for his great services, and for the distribution
of the great barons at strategic points where they could aid the
king in governing his subjects, William I bestowed upon Count
Roger the earldoms of Shrewsbury and Arundel. As his posses-
sions were on the borderland between England and Wales, he was
known as a Lord Marcher. He established himself at Shrews-
bury, opposite the Welsh land of Powys, and there with his wife
Mabel he raised up a numerous family of sons and daughters.
Some of them went abroad ; some went into the church ; and four,
especially, have a very important place in the history of Wales.
These were Robert, Hugh, Arnulph and Sybil. Hugh followed
the Severn valley and the Towy, conquering Ceredigion and
threatening Dyved. Arnulph, en the other hand, crossed the hills
in the valley of Cleddau and tr.uk possession of the south of Dyved.
To secure possession of these fair portions of the "garden of
Wales," castles sprang up thickly ; among others, those of Carew
and Pembroke. The power of the Montgomery family now ex-
tended from Shrewsbury, across Plmlimmon, into the extreme
southwest part of Wales.
The sister, Sybil, married Fiiz Hanion, Earl of Gloucester,
whose loyalty to the cause of William had been liberally rewarded
with license to take as much Welsh land as he could hold. So he
rapidly subjugated the rich lands of Gwent and Morgannwg, and
the whole of Glamorgan, from the Castle of Cardiff on the east to
the Castle of Ccnfig on the west. Subject to him further west
were other adventurers in the vale of Neath, and the country
around Kidwelly — joining at last the territories of Arnulph and
Hugh. Hugh lost his life while repelling an invasion of Nor-
wegians upon the island of Mons. In 1099 the Red King allowed
the other brother, Robert, called Beselme, to succeed Hugh as Earl
of Shrewsbury.- So he came over from Normandy. He was a most
able and energetic chieftain, and he straightway began to plan the
upbuilding of a western kingdom with Shrewsbury as the capital.
Behind it Welsh princes and Norman earls were to be the subjects
of its lord, and he was to be in close alliance with the kings of Ire-
land. And the daring dream did nut fall far short of success. Rob-
ert stood high above all the Normans of Wales; his dominions,
either under himself or Ins brother Arnulph, included half of Wales
and a large slice of English soil. He was a politic man, and won
the Welsh, who looked to him as to their own princes, as one who
"would make the land glad with freedom." He formed an al-
liance with Griffydd ap Conan, who was glad to have the stout earl
between him and the king. Everywhere the castles were strength-
ened and the petty Welsh princes placated. Arnulph, who had
married a daughter of Murtagh, a petty king of Ireland, received
many recruits from across the channel.
Upon the death of the Red King his younger brother, Henry,
grasped the scepter, but his elder brother, Robert, Duke of Nor-
mandy, also claimed the throne, and levied an army to invade
" rt<iH *-<t1
ASKEATON CASTLE. IRELAND
; V' -""?*' ^
England. Henry called upon the Montgomeries for their feudal
aid, but they held aloof, thinking to profit by the dissensions of the
royal house. But when Henry succeeded in buying his brother
off ami had got the Xorman army safely off the island, the peril
of the Montgomeries reached an acute stage. The king summoned
the brothers to his court at Exeter at Easter, 1102, and on their
refusal to appear he marched against them at the head of sixty
thousand men. He conquered Arundel and Tickhill, and invested
the great fortress of Bridgenorth. But this was not easy to take,
and the season was passing away. So Henry proceeded to accom-
plish by guile what he could not accomplish by force. By extrava-
gant largesses of money, and promises of the lands of the enemy,
he finally detached the Welsh allies, and thus placed the Mont-
gonieries between two fires. Recognizing the inevitable, the rebels
submitted, and both Robert and Arnulph went into exile, while
their estates were forfeited and divided up into numerous fiefs
subject to the crown. Had this house been able to withstand the
king's might at this time and further consolidated their power the
whole history of Wales and England might have been vastly dif-
ferent. But having been thus forced to transfer their activities
and energy to continental politics, they acquired such renown that
a chronicler of the time calls upon King Henry and all England
to rejoice because they had been forced to leave Wales and the
Severn valley. It is some satisfaction to know that the Welsh
princes who treacherously broke their pledges to the Montgom-
eries did not profit by their acts, both of them being flung into
English prisons and their domains given to Normans or their
Dynevor was occupied by the Normans for a short time, but
was for long the fortress of the Welsh until the last great battle,
wherein Lord Mortimer and Duke Gloucester crushed the South
Wales warriors and killed the last Llewellyn at Builth. A hun-
dred and fifty years later it held out against the legions of Owen
Glendower, the last of the Welsh princes who tried to free their
country. The present Lord Dynevor is a lineal descendant, and
still boars the Ravens of Rhvs as his motto.
Sir Rhys ap Thomas, of Carmarthen, was the most influential
supporter of the Earl of Richmond, and the former's Welsh troops
did much to win the day at Bosworth battle, and it is recorded
that Sir Rhys' own arm struck down the guilty Richard III, and
made possible the fulfillment of the old prophecy that a Welshman
should unite the two countries and sit upon the throne.
At Kidwelly Castle the Lady Gwenllian, wife of Griffith ap
Rhys, during the absence of her husband, led her forces in de-
fense against the attack of the Normans under Maurice de
Loudres in the twelfth century. She was defeated and captured,
and beheaded by her captor on his return to the castle. It was an
execrable act even for that savage time.
Cenarth Castle was located some distance from Pembroke. It
was the castle of Gerald de Windsor, made famous by the event
wherein Owen ap Cadogan with his wild Welsh tribesmen stormed
it to get possession of Lady Nesta, wife of De AVindsor.
At Llechryd Bridge Rhys ap Tewdor, supported by his South
Welsh subjects, overthrew the Xorth Welsh mid Powys forces of
Cadogan ap Bleddyn, the slain bodies choking the current of the
At Dogmacl, a little below Cardigan, is a monastery founded
by William the Norman. Here was a sanguinary fight between
Rhys ap Tewdor and Einion, one of his subjects. The latter, de-
feated, fled to Fitz Hanion at Glamorgan, whom he incited against
Rhys, the result being the defeat and death of the latter, and the
capture of his daughter, Lady Xesta, who was turned over to the
wardship of Henry 1 and circumstantially led to her union with
Gerald de Windsor. Xesta spent her early life in Cardigan
CAHIK CASTLE. IRELAND
THE INVASION OF IRELAND.
RUE invasion of Ireland by the Anglo-Normans differs in
great measure from other invasions and conquests in that
it did not represent any national movement of armies or
peoples, but stands generally as an enterprise conducted by the
members of a single family. It is a striking renaissance of the
remarkable exploits of the De Ilautevilles already detailed in this
volume, and, strange to say, the leaders of the new movement are
direct descendants of the same family who accomplished so much
on the shores of the Mediterranean. Through the union of the
Welsh princess, Nesta, with the Norman noble this remarkable
woman became the ancestress of nearly all of those bold spirits who
conquered one of the fairest domains washed by the waters of the
Atlantic, and built up for themselves vast feudal sovereignties
equal to any in the then known world. Of these the Fitzgeralds,
Carews, Barrys, Cogans, Fitz Stephens and Fitz Henrys were
most prominent, though in process of time the Fitz Clares, the De
Montmorcneics, Bourkes and De Conreies were amalgamated by
marital ties. Conspicuous among these knights and adventurers
was one who though not himself a knight, but a priest and the self-
appointed chronicler of the rest, Gerald de Barri — better known
as Gerald of Wales, or from his author name, Giraldus Cam-
briensis — who was the grandson of Nesta, through her daughter,
Angareta. To him we are indebted for a large amount of in-
formation touching the family and the events. This author is,
indeed, a captivating figure. With his half-Welsh, half-Norman
blood ; with the nimble, excitable, distinctly Celtic vein constantly
discernible in him : with a love of fighting which could hardly have
been exceeded by the doughtiest of the knights, bis cousins and
brothers; with a pen that seems to fly like an arrow across the
page; with a conceit which knows neither stint nor limit; he is
the most entertaining, the most vividly alive of chroniclers; no
historian certainly in any rigid sense of the word, but the first, as
he was also unquestionably the chief and prince, of war corre-
There was no lack of motives for this invasion, outside of the
greed of the Norman nature, and the dominant characteristic of.
that enterprising race to seize whatever belonged to another. The
Irish Church was viewed by the Popes as schismatic. Henry I had
obtained years before a Bull from Hadrian IV sanctioning the
conquest of Ireland "to the honor of God and the welfare of the
land." But it was left to an Irishman fourteen years later to
open the door, and call in the foreigner to the undoing of his
country's freedom. Dermot McMurrough, King of Leinster, hav-
ing foully wronged a neighboring chieftain, he complained to
Eoderick O'Connor, his overlord, and in the war Dermot was
driven from the country. He passed over into Wales and enlisted
the favor of Robert Clare, Earl of Pembroke, known as ''Strong-
bow," and .Maurice Fitz Gerald. To the former he offered the
band of his daughter Eva in marriage and the succession to the
Kingdon of Leinster. In order to give the expedition a
reasonable semblance of twelfth century legitimacy he visited
Henry II ami procured a quasi-approval of the enterprise, Clare
secured the Bourkes, De Courceys and others, while Maurice en-
listed his family relationship, which were considerable and pow-
erful. Robert Fit/. Stephen led the advance guard, supported by
several of his kinsmen. He was a son of Lady Nesta. His force
consisted of thirty mail-clad men-at-arms and about 360 archers
and foot soldiers, the flower of Hie youth of Wales. He landed
near Wexford in 1 1 TO, and was joined by Dermot with his wild
clansmen. An assault on Wexford was successful. The first in-
vader to l>e wounded was Robert de Barri, a grandson of Xesta,
who was struck by a stone while mounting the ladders. The town
and territory were granted to Fitz Stephen and Maurice Fitz
Gerald by the Irish chief. The allies marching northward took
the country of Ossory. These successes served to unite the Irish
natives, and Roderick, the dominant king of the island, brought
MAYNOOTH CASTLE. IRELAND
such a force to the field as to practically surround Fitz Stephen
and Dermot. The latter entrenched themselves at a point near
Ferns, and proceeded to negotiate. In a speech to his followers
at this time Fitz Stephen said : "We derive our descent, origi-
nally, in part from the blood of the Trojans !" referring to a
genealogical tradition that the family of Other were descended
from Aeneas through the De Medicis. A peace was concluded on
the basis of Dermot receiving the kingship of Leinster.
Soon after Maurice Fitz Gerald arrived with a considerable
force, landing on the island of Bannow, near Wexford. By
reference to genealogical table it will be seen that Maurice was a
half-brother to Fitz Stephen, and as he is an immediate ancestor
of our family it might be well to at least describe his personal
appearance: "He was a man of dignified aspect and modest
bearing; of a ruddy complexion and good features. He was of
middle height — neither tall nor short. He was wise and mod-
erate, and much more anxious to be good than to appear good. In
war he was intrepid, and second to no man in valor ; but he did
not run heedless into danger, and, though prudent in attack, was
resolute in defense. He was sober, modest, chaste, constant, firm
and faithful ; a man not without fault, but not stained with any
great crime." Upon the arrival of Maurice and his forces Dermot
assembled his own army, and the two marched upon Dublin, leav-
ing Fitz Stephen engaged in building a fort for the better pro-
tection of Wexford. This place is still known as Carrach Castle.
The city of Dublin and adjoining territory were quickly subdued,
and Fitz Stephen, in turn, relieved Limerick, which was besieged
by the Irish. The ambition of Dermot being fired by these suc-
cesses, he offered Maurice and Fitz Stephen bis two daughters in
marriage if they would assist him in invading Connaught. As
they were already married, he renewed the same offer to Richard
of Pembroke. The earl, who had before held back from the enter-
prise, now became interested and sent over a considerable force
under his lieutenant, Raymond le Gros, who was the son of
Maurice Fitzgerald's elder brother, William. Raymond possessed
all the qualities of a great general, and the wonderful success of
the Normans in Ireland was largely attributable to his talents.
He landed near Waterford, and engaging the enemy, quickly
scattered them; and, being joined soon after by Earl Richard and
his foivcs, the city was stormed unci taken. The city of Dublin
having revolted, the combined forceps of the earl, Raymond, Mau-
rice and Fitz Stephen investi d the place, and after a short siege
a successful assault, beaded by Milo de Cogan, a nephew of Mau-
rice, was made and the capital captured. Milo was made governor
of the place on account of his great deeds. After this the county
of Meath was overrun.
So "Teat had been this initial success of the family leaders in
Ireland, and so much territory had they acquired, that envious
persons spread abroad and carried to King Henry II such reports
as induced the belief that the adventurers were setting up an in-
dependent sovereignty and that they would be able shortly to defy
the king himself. The latter, allowing himself to be influenced
by these reports, made proclamation interdicting the landing of
any supplies of men and material in Ireland, and commanding
the Geraldines to return to England under pain of forfeiting their
estates and being adjudged rebels. In this exigency Raymond
■was sent by his relatives to see the king and set the matter straight,
and proffer all territories conquered to the king. Pending the
result of Raymond's mission Dermot died and Earl Richard as-
sumed the succession of his rights. An attack was made by Danes
on Dublin, but was repulsed by Milo de Cogan and his brother
Richard. (It is supposed that the name Cogan is the same as the
Welsh Gwygan or Gwyn, or later, Wynn.)
But Dublin was again invested by the Irish, Richard, Maurice
and Raymond, who had returned, being in command; and Fitz
Stephen was likewise besieged at Carragh by a large host of ene-
mies. Hearing of Fitz Stephen's strait, the Dublin Geraldines,
as a result of a determined sortie, defeated and scattered their
enemies. In this action Meyler, a nephew, and Gerald and Alex-
ander, sons of .Maurice, distinguished themselves. Thereupon the
army marched to the relief of Fitz Stephen, who had, however,
surrendered before they reached him.
However, the limits of our present work will not allow us to
continue to detail the progress of the conquest of Ireland. The
king having relented in his judgment, and having arranged his
French affairs, passed over into Ireland, and proceeded to adjust
the affairs there. He brought a large army, quite sufficient to
overawe both the Normans and the natives, and all parties
, '■'- * *
hastened to do obeisance. Fitz Stephen was released, and his pos-
sessions restored; but in the main he deprived the Geraldines of
the fruits of their valor and set some court favorites over them.
Their natural talents for leadership quickly brought them to the
front again, however, and we find Maurice, and his nephews,
Griffith, brother of Raymond, Walter de Barri, Meyler Fitz
Henry, Ralph Fitz Stephen, and others, rescuing the governor of
Dublin from an Irish ambuscade. The king becoming embroiled
with his rebellious sons a little later, recalled most of his lieu-
tenants and troops, and turned Ireland over to the Geraldines,
with Raymond as military chief. He retained this office until
recalled to Wales by the death of his father, William Fitzgerald,
and Hervey Montmorency took his place. This latter captain
proving incompetent, Raymond was sent for, and, having received
his share of his father's estate, he equipped a large reinforcement,
with which he speedily relieved Waterford, Wexford and other
invested points. Afterwards he espoused Easilia, the daughter
of Ear] Richard Strongbow, but on the very day after his mar-
riage he was called to lead his army to the relief of Meath and
the territories adjacent. In the short peace which prevailed after
these energetic movements the Geraldines became more closely
united by the marriage of Hervey Montmorency with Xesta,
daughter of Maurice Fitzgerald ; and Earl Richard's daughter,
Alina, with William, eldest son of Maurice Fitzgerald. Maurice
himself, who bad gone back to Wales to reside, was induced to
return to Ireland, and was given the earldom of Offaly with Wick-
low Castle as a hereditary fief. Meyler was given the province on
the frontier of the Pale.
The Irish Prince of Limerick having rebelled against the Xor-
man government, Raymond led a force against them. His ad-
vance guard coming to the river Shannon, David Welsh, a nephew
of Raymond, crossed alone to test the ford, and coming back, he
and Meyler recrossed almost alone and were attacked by a strong
force of Irish who had come up. Raymond, however, coming up
with the main body, dashed across, and the city was quickly taken.
Raymond was stout (hence his name Le Gros), was a little above
the middle height ; his hair was yellow and curly, and he had large,
round eyes. His nose was prominent, his countenance high-colored ;
cheerful and pleasant. He was prudent and temperate, capable
of great endurance and much beloved by his comrades. Meyler,
his cousin, on the other hand, was of a dark complexion, with black
eyes and a stem and piercing look ; was below middle height, but
of great strength. lie was daring and adventurous, and shrank
from no enterprise either singly or in company. Among other
Geraldines who distinguished themselves at this time we gather
the names of Robert de Barri, Raymond of Kantitune and Ray-
mond Fitz Hugh, who were all killed during the first years of the
occupation; Milo de Cogan, the first to come over; Robert Fitz
Henry, brother of Meyler. David Welsh, the one above men-
tioned, was also killed a little later.
THE death of Earl Richard left Ireland in charge of Raymond
until the king appointed a Fitz Aldelm, who on his arrival
conceived a dislike to the Geraldines and tried on all occasions to
depress them. Maurice Fitzgerald died Sept. 1, 1177, at Wex-
ford, and was buried in the Abbey of Grey Friars there. Soon
after the governor was recalled, and the king gave Fitz Stephen
and Milo all of the kingdom of Mimster. Five years later Milo
and his son-in-law, Ralph Fitz Stephen, were treacherously mur-
dered by a band of Irish outlaws. A rebellion succeeding, Ray-
mond marched thither and restored order. Soon after Richard
de Cogan, Milo's brother, Philip de Barri, Fitz Stephen's nephew,
Gerald de Barri, the author (Giraldus), and brother of Robert de
Barri, arrived, from Wales and assisted in restoring the fortunes
of the Geraldines. Hervey de Montmorency, tired with the trials
of the turbulent times and left a widower by the death of Xesta,
daughter of Maurice, returned to England and became a monk of
Canterbury, endowing the church with all his possessions in
Waterford and Wexford. At this time there flourished in Wick-
low, Wexford and Kildare counties William, Gerald and Alex-
ander, sons of Maurice Fitzgerald ; in Minister were the Cogans,
the sons of Fitz Stephen — Alexander and Giraldus ; at Waterford
was Robert de Barri, younger son of Philip, who held possessions
in Leinster and Desmond, besides both Raymond of Kantitune
and Raymond Fitz Hugh. Raymond le Gros and his brother
Grifi'yth were established in Leinster. Altogether upwards of
thirty Geraldines were enfeoffed in South Ireland. Then Hugh
de Lacy, the governor, was recalled, and more trouble came to
them. However, the new governor proved so incompetent that De
Lacy was recalled tlie next winter. Among his acts were to detach
Meyler from Kildare and locate him in Lex (now Queens county),
the extreme west side of Leinster, for the purpose of guarding the
frontier, and built him a castle at Tahmel. Meyler married a
niece of the governor. In 11S5 Prince John, son of Henry II,
came to Ireland and took charge of the country; our relative, Giral-
dus, now Archdeacon of Canterbury, acting as his secretary. John
only stayed eight, months. He returned as king twenty-five years
later and ousted the l)e Lacys, who had become predominant.
Within this time we find our family had done very well for them-
selves. Maurice's descendants had become the Earls of Kildare
and Desmond ; William Fitzgerald, his brother, had possessed
Kerry; indeed, as time went on the lordship of the Desmond-
Fitzgeralds grew larger and larger, until it covered as much
ground as many a small European kingdom. Nor was this all
— the White Knight, the Knight of Glyn and the Knight of Kerry
wei-e all three Fitzgeralds, all descended from the same root, and
all owned large tracts of country. The position of the Geraldines
of Kildare was predominant. In later times their great keep at
Maynouth dominated the whole Pale, while their followers
swarmed everywhere, each man with a G embroidered upon his
breast in token of his allegiance. The elder son of Gerald de
Windsor inherited his father's Welsh possessions, and William's
eldest son, Odo, succeeded him ; later through intermarriage with
the Carews (Careys) he became the ancestor of both the Welsh
and Irish branches of that family. David, the third son of
Gerald de Windsor, entered the church and became Bishop of
St. David, the metropolitan diocese of Wales. At his death
Giraldus was elected to succeed him, but having incurred the dis-
pleasure of the king, was not allowed to assume the office. He was
one of the few learned men of the times, having gone through the
University of Paris, both as student and afterwards as teacher.
He refused the bishopric of Bangor. When Richard Coeur d'
Leon departed to the crusades, Giraldus, in conjunction with the
Bishop of Ely, were appointed as administrators of the kingdom.
He was again elected Bishop of St. David, but because the king
believed that a Welshman at the head of that see would be dan-
gerous to English supremacy, he was again refused. In 1215 he
was again offered the place, but declined on account of age. He
■ ■ sTtrtaa. _
• £ ;r r j -
3 ' i
CATHEDRAL OF ST. DAVID, WALES
died in 1223. Philip de Barri, his nephew, succeeded him as
Archdeacon of Brecknock.
For many years the history of Ireland is a dead level waste of
commonplace events — for that day. The Xormans became much
Jrishized by contact with the natives, and many intermarriages
of the two races occurred, though forbidden by statute. The
viceroys were usually petty English princelings who rarely came
to the island, and the backbone of the country was the gTeat fami-
lies developed from the Geraldines and their great rivals, the
Butlers of Ormoiul. So it ran along until the invasion of Ireland
by Bruce in 1315. The Scottish chief all but won the island from
Britain, and had it not been for the stern constancy and indomi-
table fighting quality of Desmonds and Kildares — the old Fitz-
gerald blood — the history of the British Isles might read far dif-
ferent to-day. Edward Bruce was himself descended from Strong-
bow and Dermot Mcilurrough, but he was defeated and killed
by descendants of the old associates of these leaders in a fierce
battle at Dundalk.
"Scrambling forward" is what researchers of Irish history des-
ignate the period up to the war of the "Roses." Many times the
Norman element was almost overwhelmed by the natives, and
the boundaries of the Pale became narrower and narrower. The
Duke of York was banished to Ireland in honorable exile, and at
the birth of his son George, the luckless Duke of Clarence, the
Earl of Desmond acted as his sponsor. His residence here stood
him in good stead, as most of the Geraldines upheld the Yorkist
party in the civil war which shortly followed. The Earl of Kil-
dare and his troops assisted in winning the bloody field of Towton,
which restored the family of York. The Earl of Ormond, their
great rival, was taken and beheaded, and much of his estates in
Ireland became the spoil of the Fitzgeralds. This left them in
complete control for nearly a century. Even after the recru-
descence of the Lancastrian dynasty in the Tudors the family
maintained its ascendency. The greatest leader of this epoch was
Gerald, eighth Earl of Kildare, called by his followers Geroit
Mor, or Gerald the Great, who as deputy from 14S0, under five
successive kings and during a period of thirty-three years,
"reigned" until his death in 1513. He was the most important
chief governor who ruled Ireland upon thorough-going Irish prin-
ciples. "A mighty man of stature, full of honor and courage."
"Princely and religious in his words and judgments" is the report
of the "Annals of the Four Masters." "His name awed his ene-
mies more than his army," says Camden. "In hys warres hee
used a retchless (reckless) kynde of diligence, or headye care-
lessness," is another report. Although he espoused the cause of
the pretenders against Henry VII, and was imprisoned a year in
England, he was released and reinstated, although Sir James
Ormond was given the place of Lord Treasurer instead of Baron
Portlestcr, a Geraldine, who had held it for thirty -eight years.
Frequent outbreaks occurred with the Butlers. In one of these,
where friends sought to patch up a truce, a hole had to be sawed
in the door of the Chapter House so that the two chiefs could
shake hands. The rival war cries of these factions, "Croom-a-
boo" and "Butler-a-boo," were solemnly prohibited by act of Par-
liament in 1404. It is recorded that the English Council re-
ported to the king "that all Ireland cannot govern this man."
The king retorted, "Then this man shall govern all Ireland," and
he withdrew his commissioners accordingly. He was a patron of
art and science, and did much in connection with his kindred to
advance civilization in the island. The Great Earl was slain in
1513 in a skirmish with one of the chiefs of Offaly.
He was succeeded as deputy by his son Gerald, also called
"Great." For some years he followed the trend of his father's
policy, and did much to advance the English cause, but he failed
to read aright the changing order of things. Henry VII was dead
and Henry VIII was engaged in his famous struggle with the
papacy, which exercised much influence on his political policy.
Earl Gerald was in attendance on the king at the famous meeting
of the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and like his father wedded a
near relation of Henry. But his power made him incautious; he
incurred the enmity of Wolsey, and was spied upon and hounded
by the Butlers, who were related to Queen Anna Boleyn; he was
accused by the latter of corresponding with the king's foreign
enemies, and in 1534 he was committed to the Tower. He seemed
to have had a foreboding of evil, as he had appointed his son
Thomas as vice-deputy, and had removed the artillery from Dub-
lin Castle to Maynouth and other fortresses of his own. Wolsey
denounced him as "Xing Kildare, who reigned rather than ruled
BETTYS- Y-COED. WALES
^^-i.».vii' -".jri'-L . '.' "Vw .1 i„ ":"-Zi.*!jj* T .'.~ii. -jI- --v . ----- v.—
DOLWYDDELEN CASTLE, WALES
in Ireland." He died within a few months of confinement and
from effects of a wound. A false report sent to Ireland that "the
earl had hecn cut shorter, as his issue should be," set the whole
The young Lord Thomas, only twenty-one — hot-tempered, un-
disciplined and brimful of the pride of his race — at once roused
his subjects to rebellion. Galloping up to the Council House with
a hundred and fifty Gerald hies at his heels, he cast the Sword of
State upon the table in front of the astonished councillors, and de-
clared himself the foe of the king. The latter dispatched an army
to the scene, which, forming a junction with the Butler faction,
laid siege to the Earl's fortress of Maynooth, believed in Ireland
to be impregnable. But the English had brought over some heavy
artillery and a breach was effected. Whether the place was taken
by treachery or fair fighting is uncertain, but the garrison was
butchered to a man. This "Pardon of Maynooth" is still men-
tioned as an equivalent for murder. The rebellion collapsed. Lord
Thomas was taken and executed, along with five of his uncles;
two, apparently, without any proof of guilt. A child, Gerald,
afterwards the eleventh carl, was the only scion of this branch of
the ancient family left alive, lie was carried by his aunt, Mary
O'Connor, into the wilds of Offaly and from thence smuggled to
Trance. Lord Grey, the king's deputy, overran Cork, broke down
the castles of the Barry s and Minister Gerald inos, and effectively
ruined the family.
Even Lord Grey, himself, who had served the king so well, but
was related to the Geraldincs, was charged by the Butlers with
trying to shield the family, and was executed by the vindictive
order of Henry himself.' The eclipse of the Kildares brought the
next branch of the Geraldines into prominence. The Earl of
Desmond was invited to London and every effort was made by
the king to bind his house to royal policy. A state paper of the
times says: "The winning of the Earl of Desmond was the win-
ning of the rest of Minister with small charges." ruder the brief
reign of Mary the young Earl of Kildare was restored to his
honors and regained his lands.
Tn the reign of Elizabeth the great Shane O'Neill ran his great
career, during which he subjected half of Ireland to his rule, and
harassed a large part of the remainder with bis forays. He stands
in history as the last great Irish feudal chief; hut he was also a
Geraldine, his grandmother having been sister of the Earl of Kil-
dare. Morris in his history speaks thus of him: "lie possessed,
in the very highest degree, the excellences and defects of the
genuine Celt; his veins were full of Geraldine blood, but he was
a great Irishman in liis essential character."
In the few years following 156G the Desmond branch of the
family were to undergo great trials. The honors and lands of the
Desmonds had been inherited by Gerald, the thirteenth earl; they
carried with them the suzerainty of nearly a third of Minister, and
the allegiance of clans and septs of Irishry from the plains of
Cork and Limerich to the Kerry ranges. Xow the feuds between
the Desmonds and Butlers had never ceased, despite many family
alliances; they were mostly questions of titles and ownership, and
therefore exclusively one for the lawyers. The queen summoned
both the earls, Ormond and Desmond, to appear before her for
the adjudication of their claims. The two earls were stepson and
stepfather. But Ormond had the advantage of being related to the
queen through her mother, Anna Boleyn, and Desmond had not
his reputation of absolute loyalty to the crown. Desmond was
forced to turn all his rights over to the crown. His brother, Sir
John, whom he had left in control of his lands, was also sent to
the Tower. It is small wonder that the family following should
have resented these acts; and under Sir James Fitzmaurice, a
cousin of the carl, they rose as one man. And, strange to say,
many of the Butlers joined them, regarding the confiscation as an
act of tyranny which might act as a precedent against them. For
two years war was carried on, anil finally a compromise settlement
was effected, Fitzmaurice agreeing to leave the country and Des-
mond being reinstated in most of his domains.
In 1570 the last great rebellion of the Desmonds broke out.
Fitzmaurice, going from court to court in Europe, had received
pledges of support from Spain and the Pope, and landed in Kerry
with a few hundred soldiers. All the Geraldines rose in revolt,
and a sanguinary war raged for four years, involving more than
half of Ireland. Unfortunately for the rebels, Fitzmaurice, who
was a man of great ability, was killed in a skirmish the first
year. The war partook of the most savage guerrilla character;
the land became a desert ; devastation was everywhere. Finally
GWYDIK CASTLE. WALKS
numbers prevailed, and the Earl of Desmond, driven to bay in
Kerry, was killed in battle, surrounded by hundreds of his devoted
kindred to the last. His immense personal domains — some half
million of acres — was parceled out among English '"undertakers,"
and colonists from England were put in possession. Among those
who were thus favored were Edmund Spenser, the poet, and Sir
Walter llaleigh. It is said Kalcigh first introduced potatoes into
Ireland by planting them upon the ground thus obtained. The
rebellion crushed, a bloody vengeance was exacted. Desmond's
brothers were taken and executed — Sir John Fitzgerald at Cork
and Sir James at Askeaton. The Earl of Kildare was sent to die
in the Tower, along with Desmond's son, a feeble boy, with the ex-
tinguishing of whose sickly tenure of life the direct heirs of the
Munster house were extinguished. The whole south of Ireland
became a reeking shambles; what sword and rape and torch had
spared famine came in to complete.
In 1596 another great revolution broke out in Ireland — again
headed by a blood relative of the familv, though himself mainly
Irish. Hugh O'Xeil, Earl of Tyrone, and nephew of Shane
O'Xeil, before mentioned, had been kept as hostage at the English
court since boyhood. He was reared in English ways, which he
seemed to assimilate so completely that Queen Elizabeth revived
the earldom of Tyrone and, bestowing it upon Hugh, sent him
home. For many years Hugh was loyal, and his followers joined
in putting down the Desmonds — his relatives. But the bad gov-
ernment at Dublin, and the favoritism shown to English adven-
turers soured him, and his remonstrances to the queen passing
unheeded, he took up arms in defense of his rights. His sister
had married the head of the O'Donnels, and the two great clans
were united on the field for the first time in all history. The war
lasted for six years with varying success, and was finally settled by
compromise, the earl retaining his title and lands, but renouncing
his Irish headship of the great sept, of O'Neils. At the end Eliza-
beth was told that she "reigned over ashes and dead carcasses."
The after career of these leaders may be briefly told, and here
our tale of the Geraldines in Ireland will end. After the death
of Elizabeth and the accession of James I, Hugh and bis brother-
in-law, O'Donnel, attended court, where they were received with
favor and the latter was raised to the peerage under the title of
Earl of Tyreonnell. Many changes were introduced into Ireland,
and English law everywhere prevailed. Some charges of treason
were trumped up against these great proprietors, their lands were
declared forfeited, and they fled to France. Three millions of
acres of their lands were devoted to the "plantation" of Scotch
and English settlers, and thus was formed the nucleus of the
present Protestant population of Ulster.
NOTES OX GERALDIXES.
An instance of the despotic sway of Gerald, eighth Earl of Kil-
dare, is found in the following incident: One of his daughters
was married to a De Burke, and complained to her father of mis-
treatment at the hand.-; of her husband. The father called his
troops, state and private, and invaded the domains of his son-in-
law, whom he defeated at the battle of Knocktow, leaving seven
thousand of the Irish dead on the field. All the territories of
De Burke were taken over by the victor.
Lord Surrey, son of the victor of Flodden Field, was a grand-
son of the ninth Earl of Kildare.
Ariosto, in Orlando Furioso, Canto X, Stanzas S7-88, says of
"Sono due squadre e il conte di Childera
Mena la prima; e il conte d Desmonda
Da fieri mondi ha tratta la seconda.
Nello stendardo, il prino ha un pino ardente;
L 'altro nel bianco una vermiglia banda."
Two of the daughters of the ninth Earl of Kildare were married
to Irish chiefs, O'Connor and O'Carroll, in defiance of law, and
he was looked upon as suzerain by all the wild tribes from the
ranges of Ulster to the far hills of Kerry.
Gerald Mor, the eighth Earl of Kildare, married Elizabeth St.
John, the cousin of Henry VII.
Maurice Fitzgerald was appointed by Henry II the second
Governor of Ireland, after Strongbow's death.
The direct descendants of Maurice Fitzgerald were Earls of
Desmond, Barons of Oft'aly, Earls of Kildare, Dukes of Leinster,
Knights of Glyn, White Knight, Knight of the Valley, Knight of
Rhodes. The Fitzgeralds of Kerry were Barons of Decius,
Seneschals of Innokilly, Knights of Kerry. In Tipperary and
Waterford were Fitzgeralds as Barons of Cosbmore and Cosh-
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bride. The Villers, Earls of Jersey, intermarried with them in
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and were created Earls
of Grand ison. The Fitz G i 1)1 ions were branches of the Fitz-
geralds, present head Earl of Clare.
Raymond, son of William Fitzgerald, had a son, Maurice, from
whom his descendants have been named Fitz Maurice. Earl of
Kerry is one of the branches; as, also, the present head is Marquis
of Landsdowno. The Carews were also descended from William
Fitzgerald, through Odo, his son. The head of the family seems to
have remained in Wales. Odo married a daughter of Richard Fitz
Tancred, Constable of Haverfordwest, who was a sou of Tailored
of Bawdry, Constable of Haverfordwest. Gerald, an older brother
of Odo, was slain when a young man. Raymond, the youngest
son, carried his fortunes to Ireland. The Castle of Carew com-
mands one side of the neck of the peninsula of Pembroke. Will-
iam inherited the castle and fief, hence the name. The Fitz-
Maurices were Barons of Lixnaw, Viscounts of Clan-Maurice,
and Earls of Shelbournc. One of the Carews married a daughter
of Robert Fitz Stephen.
The Irish Wynnes were Barons of Iledley. The name Wynne
was Irishized into O'Maolgaoithe or Mulgeehv.
Commanding the side of the neck of Pembroke peninsula, op-
posite Carew Castle, is located Manorbier Castle, the seat of
l)c Barri, who married Angharad, daughter of the elder Gerald.
Here was the birthplace of our author, Giraldus, and the other
Barrys famous in Irish history. They held large demesnes in
Cork and Waterford. Some of the family are now called Mc-
David. The Barrys were Barons of Olethaun, Viscount of Butte-
vant and Earls of Barry. Walter de Barri, brother of the his-
torian, was on one occasion warned in a dream not to take part in
a certain expedition. Xot heeding it, he was slain the next day.
•Adam de Montgonierie's son, Edmund, married Elizabeth,
sister of Lady Xesta.
Offaly, given to Maurice Fitzgerald, comprises a great part of
Kings, Queens ami Kildare counties of the present day. The
head of the family, established at the great Castle of Maynooth,
only sixteen miles west of Dublin, practically separated the capital
from the rest of the island and gave him paramount political in-
-T»*^.^;-**-- r, -"^7'~'"'"' " 1 ' ■« 7 r -'^->><- -•■»■-- :«-«~rj
SIR JOHN WYNNE OF GVVYDIK
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David, the third son of Xesta and Gerald, went into the church,
and rose to become Bishop of St. David, the metropolitan see of
Wales, as Canterbury is of England, and wielded a mighty in-
fluence upon the destiny of Wales. He served from 1145 to his
death in 1176.
Another branch of the family in Ireland were the De Cogans,
who were descended from a daughter of Angharad, Gerald's
daughter. Their descendants exist to this day in Minister,
Of Nesta's son by Henry I, it may be said that he was killed
while leading a Norman* invasion of the island of Mons (now
Anglesea). His half-brother, Robert Fitz Stephen, was at the
same time wounded, but escaped. Fitz Henry left a son, Henry,
who was father of Meyler, Robert and Henry, all of whom figure
in Irish history.
Hervey de Montmorency, who married a daughter of Maurice
Fitzgerald, was a member of the princely house of Montmorency
in France. This family is mentioned beginning with Bouchard
T, Baron de Montmorency, contemporary with Hugh Capet. Mat-
ihieu II was constable in France in 12M0; at the battle of Bou-
vines in 1214. .Mattliicu TV was grand chamberlain to Philip
III. Charles was marshal in 1325 and councillor of state while
the French king was captive of Edward TIL Anne, Due de ^Mont-
morency, was the greatest of the family; a veritable Bayard,
Marshal of France. He lived till the accession of the Bourbons
to the throne. Henry IV designated his family as next to royalty
in the kingdom. The family were later allied to the Condes, the
Medicis and Longuevilles. They were in the crusades. Matthieu
I married Aline, natural daughter of Henry I of England, and
Hervey was probably a scion of this union. After serving in Ire-
land, where he obtained large possessions, he, upon the death of
his wife, returned to England and became a monk, bestowing his
estates upon the church.
Cogan is the same as Gwgan and may have originally been
Wynn. Milo de Cogan was Governor of Dublin after it was cap-
tured, largely by his valor. The city was afterwards besieged by
Danes and Norwegians, who were repulsed by the Normans under
Milo and Richard de Cogan.
Odrone is a barony in the neighborhood of Laiglin, Carlow
county, Ireland. It was given to William Fitzgerald and de-
scended to the Carcws.
Robert Fitz Stephen was for two years a prisoner of Griffith,
his brother-in-law, in Wales.
The Trojan origin of the Geraldines is attributed to two sources,
one the Welsh genealogy mentioned elsewhere, and we give the
other herein. In 1 GG5 Father Dominic O'Daly, writing to the
Cardinals Antony and Francisco Barberini, in Italy, says: "Ten
years' siege had destroyed the glorious city of Illium and cut off
all its leaders with the single exception of Aeneas, who, being
compelled to fly, assembled about him a trusty band of youths who
had outlived their country's overthrow,' foremost, of whom in dig-
nity and bravery was the founder of our Geraldines. *
Aeueas soon afterwards divided the land of Italy among his fol-
lowers, assigning to each his portion ; and in the distribution he
bestowed upon the great ancestor of our Geraldines that region of
Hetruria where Florence now stands."' Giraldus also claims Trojan
origin on the Welsh side through the traditional settlement of a
colony of Trojans under Brute, the grandson of Dardanus, in
Maurice Fitzgerald had several children. His eldest son, John,
was Baron of Kildare and Leinster; his second son, Thomas, was
Baron of Connell and Limerick. Maurice's wife was Lady Alice,
daughter of Arnulph, son of Roger de Montgomery. His son
Gerald married Catherine, daughter of Ilanno de Vale-is. His
daughter, Xesta, wedded TTervey de Montmorency. Another son,
William, married Alina, daughter of the Earl of Pembroke.
Maurice's grandson. John, was Baron of Callan and Lord of
Decies. and Desmond. His great-grandson, Thomas, was the first
Earl of Desmond and inherited Fitz Stephen's domains in Cork.
Richard, Earl of Pembroke, was nephew of Hervey de Mont-
morency, and Thomas Fitzgerald was son-in-law of Roger de
Barry of Lemlara, Ireland : This branch of the once potent
name of Barry — -so influential under the successive Earls of
Barry, the Viscounts Buttevant and the Earls of Barrymore, has
enjoyed large possessions in the County Cork since the first incur-
sion of the Anglo-Xormans in the time of Henry II. The Barrys
of Sandville are derived from the Buttevant branch. The Bury-
Barrys of Ballyclough sprang from the Earl Barry.
■ ■ ■
4 *-~r ,
SARCOPHAGUS OF KING LLEWELLYN. GWYDIR CHAPEL, WALES
The first Castle of Pembroke was built by T)e Montgomery with
sods, interlaced with twigs and boughs of trees. It was rebuilt
of stone by Gerald de Windsor.
Gerald Fitz Walter was Lord of Molesford, Governor of Pem-
broke and High Steward of Pembrokeshire.
The Fitzgeralds of Coolanowle, Ireland, derive from Gerald
Fitzgerald of Tymogue and Morrett, living 1641. Intermarried
with Marquis of Hastings.
Fitzgeralds of Moyriesk, Ireland, of recent date, derived from
family of Fitzgeralds of Moyvane.
Fitz Gibbons of Crohanna, Ireland; from the ancestry of the
White Knight in Knight of Glynn in 1530. Was succeeded by
his brother on account of Desmond's rebellion.
The Frenches of Cuskinny, Ireland, arc intermarried with the
Wynnes ; and Sampson Towgood Wynne is heir to Savage French
of Cuskinny, Xov. 28, 1634.
The Wynnes of Eos Brien, Ireland : The daughter and heiress
of the Goolds — a very ancient family of the County of Cork, mar-
ried in 1S69 Henry LcPocr Wynne, son of Gen. George Wynne,
P. E., and by him had issue.
Wynnes of Hazelwood, Ireland : Right Rev. Frederick Rich-
ard Wynne, Bishop of Killaloe, son of Rev. Henry Wynne, and
great-grandson of Right lion. Owen Wynne of Hazelwood.
Knight of Kerry is a very peculiar title, and though not of
regal honor, has been held as a prescriptive honor from medieval
times, and at various times recognized by the crown. The ancestor
of this line of the Geraldines, John Fitz Thomas Fitzgerald, Lord
of Decies and Desmond, by virtue of his royal seigniory as a Count
Palatine, created three of his sons by his second marriage heredi-
tary knights, ami thus inaugurated the titles. Their descendants
have been so styled in patents under the Great Seal.
Warin Fitzgerald was one of the nobles who exacted Magna
Charta from King John, and his name appears upon said instru-
ment as one of the contracting parties and witnesses.
Earl Desmond was sponsor or godfather of George, Duke of
Clarence, brother of Edward TV. The Earl of Kildare led forces
for the Yorkists at the battle of Towtoi).
Fitzgeralds of Turlough, Ireland: Descend traditionally from
Thomas Fitzgerald (third son of Maurice, Knight of Kerry), who
married the daughter and heir of O'Dae, Chief of Ida in Kil-
kenny, and assumed the name of O'Dea, by which the family was
known till the end of the sixteenth eentury, when they resumed
the name of Fitzgerald.
Fitzgerald of Moyrane, Ireland: Dates from about 1600, from
Garrett Fitz John Fitz Gibbon, a branch of the White Knight.
In 1700 ^Maurice dropped the name of Fitz Gibbon, which was
never afterwards used. This family have intermarried with the
Earls of Desmond, Thomand and Ulster.
The Grace family, the head of which is the Baron of Courts-
town, Kilkenny county, Ireland, are descended from Raymond le
Gros. The ruins of twenty castles thereabouts attest their former
power and importance.
The old Desmond war cry, "Shannid a boo," originated from
Shannid Castle, in Limerick, Ireland, one of the family strong-
holds overlooking Shannon river. A large number of castles and
abbeys, ranging from Shannon to Kilmallock, the remains of
which are still standing, belonged to this family. Kilmallock was
the capital city of the Desmond demesnes.
. - -.
RETURN OF OSBERX.
IK a preceding chapter we have sketched fully the general
history of the Geraldines, from the union of Gerald Fitz
Walter with Lady Xesta, the beautiful and high-bom daughter
of Rhys ap Tewdor, Prince of South Wales. We have followed
their fortunes through the invasion of and conquest of Ireland
and the part which they took in the government of the same,
together with the incidents connected with the ruin and downfall
of the family fortunes at a later age. It now behooves us to go
back and follow the career of a particular branch of this family,
through devious meanderings and changes of country, until we
finally connect them with the more immediate progenitors of the
American branch of the Wynne family.
It will be remembered that Maurice Fitzgerald married the
Lady Alice, daughter of Lord Arnulph de Montgomery (an ac-
count of the Montgomeries is to be found in another place).
Maurice after the conquest of Ireland became a great noble, pos-
sessing the half of Wrexham, the Barony of Offaly, the Earldom
of Kildare, and afterwards the Earldom of Decies and Desmond.
Maurice's eldest son, John, inherited Kildare and became the
most powerful subject on the island. Maurice's second son,
Thomas, founded the Minister house, with large estates in Cork,
Limerick and Kerry. The Barony of Council alone contained
one. hundred thousand acres. The lands of Thomas were added
to by his son, John of Callan, including Decies and Desmond,
Dungarvon, and later on by all of Fitz Stephen's share of Cork.
John of Callan's son, by his first wife, was Osber or Osbern,
who having attaint d large grants of land in Merioneth, Wales,
including the site of the present mansion of Cors y Gedol, and
emigrated from Ireland in the thirteenth century. This gentle-
man was assessed in the parish of Llanabar, County Merioneth,
towards the tax of a Fifteenth in 1293. Below is the line of
genealogy as given hy Browning in his "Americans of Royal
Descent": ©, v) v S Qi ' / * </ / <xUu>fi TCI
1. Maurice Fit/. Gerald Fit/. Walter (Marriole Fitz Gerard),
Lord of Offaly and Xaas, County Kildare, Ireland, who went to
•^ Ireland in 11G8, with many followers, to assist Dermot McMur-
b rough, King of Leinster, in his war with his subjects, and died
1177. He had by Lady Alice, his wife, daughter of Arnulph,
son of Roger do Montgomery :
;•'•:. 2. Gerald Fitz Maurice, Baron of Offaly, Chief Justice of
Ireland, died 1205, who had by his wife, Lady Catherine, daugh-
ter of Hanno de Yalois, Lord Justiciar of Ireland, 1107:
-"""IT- Thomas Fitz Maurice, Fitz Gerald, surnamed the Great,
second son, who died 1200, who married Lady Elinor, daughter
of Jordan de Montmorency, and had:
4. John Fitz Gerald, killed at Callan by the McOarthy-Mor
in 126'1, who had by his first wife, Lady Margery, daughter of
Sir Thomas Fitz Anthony, Lord of Desmond and Decies:
5. Osbem Fitz Gerald, Lord of Ynys-y-Maengwyn and Cors
y Gedol, in Merioneth, designated by Welsh genealogists by the
further denomination of Osber Wyddell or the Stranger from
Ireland, and more commonly Osburn Wyddel, or Osborn the
Irishman. This chief emigrated to Wales about the middle of
the thirteenth century, where being in high favor with Llewelyn
ap Iowerth, Prince of Xorth Wales, he obtained from that mon-
arch grants of Yns-y-Macngwyn and Cors-y-gedol, and other ex-
tensive possessions. He was the ancestor of several of the most
eminent families in the principality. Among them are the
Vaughns of Cors-y-gedol; Yales of Plas-yn-Yale; Lloyds of Plas-
Enion; Rogers of Bryntangar; Gwyns (Wynns) of Yns-y-Maen-
gwyn ; Morgans of Draws Vynedd ; Lewises of Festinioge ;
Joneses of Maes-y-Garmcdd ; Wynnes of Glynn; Wynnes (by
change of name Xanneys) of Maes-y-Xenadd ; Wynnes of Pen-
riarth. His arms were : "Ermine, a saltire, gu." 1 1 is son
6. Cymric ap Osbem, who, on the division of his father's
lands according to the custom of "gavel-kind," prevalent in Wales
•r^t »T "■ '"""^P* '";■•" "
. - - OJ^««— -
until the passage of the ordinance for the better government of
that country in the parliament of the 34th and 35th of Henry
VIII, inherited as a portion of his share the dominion of Cors y
Gedol in Merionethshire. His issue, among others, was:
■7. Llewellyn ap Cymric, who married Lady Nesta, daughter
of Gritlith ap Adda, of Dol Goch Yenys-y-Maengwyn, and had
Griffith, lowarth, Einion, Angharad and Janett. The third son:
8. Einion, who was born about 1315, among other issue, had
9. Gwerflr, who married Robin ap Meredith, ap Howell, ap
David, ap Cariodog, etc., and who was descended from Owen
Gwynedd, King of Xorth Wales, and entitled to use the royal
Welsh coat of arms, consisting of: "Quarterly — 1st and 4th vert;
three eagles displayed in fesse or," for Owen Gwynedd ; and "2nd
and 3d, gu. three lions passant, in pale argent, armed," for Grif-
fith ap Oynan, King of South Wales. [See Burke's Peerage, p.
1658.] They had a daughter, who married:
Ithel Vychan (Vaughn) ap Cynric ap Ratpert ap lowarth ap
Ririd ap lowarth ap Madog ap Ednowain Bendew, Lord of Tegamgl
and Chief of the 15th Xoble Tribe of Wales. This Ithel Vychan of
Holt, Denbigh and Northrop, in right of his wife, and of Bodfari
and Yskeiviog, Flintshire, after his marriage went to live upon
his wife's estate at Holt in Denbighshire. His great grandson,
Richard, was living in Holt in 1488, but Richard's son William
succeeded his uncle John at Chilton in Shropshire, England,
which had been granted by Henry VII to his branch of the family
for services on Bosworth Field, together with a new coat of arms
of the tinctures borne by Henry himself in that battle, viz. :
Argent and vert. Ithel Vychan had two sons, Cynric and David:
10. Cynric ap Tthel Vychan, of Bodfari and Yyskeiviog,
Flintshire, alive after 1420, married Tanglwystl, daughter and
heiress of Gruffydd Lloyd ap David ap Meredith ap Gruffydd.
Other authorities state that he also married a daughter of Gruf-
fydd ap David ap Meredith ap Rhys. He had by one or the other
of these wives issue as follows: John Rhys, and:
11. Harri ap Cynric of Yskeiviog, was born probably about
1485, and was a man of very considerable standing in his county.
The family lands in Bodfari seem to have gone to his brothers.
Rhys ap Cynric, called Rees Wyn, was of the township of Aber-
whiler, in Bodfari. He was horn about 1487, and had several
sons who Mere freeholders there. We know that among - Harri ap
Cynric's possessions was Bronvedog, in Yskeiviog, afterwards the
home of Dr. Thomas Wynne. Harri married Alice, daughter of
Simon Thelwell, Esq., of l'las y Ward, by Janet, his wife,
daughter of Edward Langford, Esq., of Ruthin, in the County of
Denbigh. Harri ap Cynric had issue by Alice, his wife:
John Wynne, of whom presently.
Thomas, of Yskeiviog, who had issue, inter al., Rees
Wynne aj> Thomas, who had Thomas Wynne, baptized
in 1581, and other issue.
12. John ap Harry was of the parish of Yskeiviog, where he
was born and where he died probably prior to 1572. He was cer-
tainly dead before 1592. He married Katherine, daughter and
heiress of Ithel ap Jenkin ap David ap Howell, and had issue
1. John Wynne, called also John ap John, Vicar of
Caerwys, who left issue.
2. Ellis Wynne.
3. Griffith Wynne.
4. Howell, in. Jane, dan. of Thomas Griffith, and had
by her John, father of Bees Wynne of Galedlom,
Hugh, Rhys and Lowry.
5. Ithel, whose son, Rees, was assessed as a landowner
in Yskeiviog in 1592.
G. Rees ap John Wynne, of whom presently.
7. Margaret, m. Thomas Ellis.
8. Alice, m. John Benet.
9. Tabitha, m. Ievan ap Richard.
10. Gwen, m. first Howell ap David.
11. Jane, m. Robert ap Griffith Lloyd.
12. Elizabeth, d. unmarried.
13. Gwensi, d. unmarried.
13. Rees ap John Wynne was born in the parish of Yskeiviog,
in the County of Flint, circa 1538, and is assessed as a freeholder
there in. the subsidy of 1592, being the second payment of the
2d subsidy for the Hundred of Ruthlin. lie was a man of con-
siderable importance, but the date of his death is unknown. Even
his wife's name is unknown. He had issue: John, of whom
BANK MEETING HOUSE, PHILADELPHIA
presently; Edward, baptd. duly, 1572; Harry, baptd. C March,
1574; Catherine, baptd. 1 .March, 1577; Janett, baptd. 2 Xov.,
1579; Jane, baptd. 10 June, 15S1 ; Hugh, baptd. 19 Feb., 15S3.
14. John ap Rees Wynne, born about 1570, was married at
Bodfari Church, October 20, 1588, to Grace Morgan. The entry
in the parish register reads: "(1588) John ap Rees ap John
Wyim and Grace dr Morgan were married the XXTXth October.''
The exact date of his death is unknown, but it was prior to 1040.
lie was prominent in the affairs of his county, and esteemed a
wealthy and influential man. His issue were:
Thomas, baptd. 20 Dec., 1580;
Mary, baptd. 10 March, 1500;
Jane, baptd. June, 1505.
15. Thomas ap John Wynne, of the parish of Yskeiviog, was
born 1580, and baptized 20 Dec, 1580, at the parish church. lie
lived at Bronvedog, in this parish, in the period 1638-30. During
the years which preceded the civil war in England he suffered
severely from fines and taxes imposed so unjustly during that
time. The name of his wife is even unknown, many of the parish
books being destroyed. He had five children, as follows: Harry,
baptd. Xov., 1610; Edward, baptd. April, 1622; John, baptd.
13 April, 1625; Thomas, baptd. 20 July, 1027, of whom pres-
ently; Peter, baptd. 30 Jan., 1630.
Thomas Wynne, M. D., is the ancestor of the American branch
of the family. He was born at Bronvedog, in the parish of
Yskeiviog, Flintshire (near Caerwys).
GEN. JOHN CADWALADER
THE WELSH WYXXES.
THE author in tracing the genealogy of Dr. Thomas Wynne
in and out among the other families of Welsh kindred was
particularly struck with the numerous intermarriages with the
Gwydir branch, and for this reason takes the liberty to insert a
summary of that family, beginning with Robert ap Meredith ap
Howell aj) David ap GrirKyth ap Cariadog. This Robert was the
elder brother of Robin, whose descendant married into the Fitz
Gerald family. Robert married, at the extreme age of eighty
years, Angharad, daughter of David ap Llewellyn, and bad:
Jevan, who married first Catherine, sister of Howell ap Rhys,
and second Gwenhylar. By his first wife he had Meredith,
Robert and John. In the following years, after Jevan had mar-
ried his second wife, a feud broke out between him and his former
brother-in-law, Howell ap Rhys, which raged with bloody result
for many years. We glean the further history from the Annals
of Gwydir, written by Sir John Wynne at the beginning of the
"A'ow in the country where this family lived, namely, Evioneth,
in Merionethshire, there were blood feuds of the most deadly
character existing between Jevan and his immediate kindred, and
the kindred of Howell ap Rhys, although the two septs were also
related by ties of consanguinity and by intermarriage. There
had been many people slain on both sides, and many more had
been forced to leave the country because of the feud. So Jevan
takes his eldest son and heir, Meredith, to one of his friends at
Creigiaw in Llamaire, an honest freeholder of the hundred of
Yseorum Isgurvai (Carnarvonshire), to foster, a custom very
prevalent in those days. This worthy man, having no children
of his own, gave his inheritance to his foster child. lie also sent
him to school at Carnarvon, where he learned to read and write,
and understand Latin, a matter of great moment in those days.
His brethren, who were left behind, losing their father early, had
"At the age of twenty-three, his foster father being dead, he
wooed and married a young woman who was daughter-in-law to a
wealthy merchant named Spicer. Her name was Alice, daughter
of William Griffith, sheriff of Carnarvon county. The couple had
two daughters, Janett and Catherine, whereupon Meredith con-
cluded to change his living, and go back to Evioneth, where there
was nothing but killing and fighting; but he finally purchased a
lease of the castle and fields of Dolwyddelan, of the executors of
Sir Ralph Berkinett, and removed there — part of the castle being
inhabitable. This old fortress had for many years been inhab-
ited by outlaws, freebooters and smugglers, and ihe entire neigh-
borhood was a retreat for all manner of lawless men. But, as
Meredith tersely yet grimly put the matter: that 'if 1 had to slaye
and be slayne I had rather fight with strangers than with my own
kindred.' There also existed a wasp's nest in the neighborhood
in a lordship belonging to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem,
the members of which, not being amenable to any law except their
own, were continually building up their ivtinue by affording
sanctuary to thieves and murderers. In this state stood the "hun-
dred" of Xantconway when Meredith took up his residence there,
in the twenty-fourth year of his age and the beginning of the
reign of Henry VII. Meredith proceeded in a diplomatic way
_to make himself strong in the county, first by affording asylum to
various refugees who were obliged to flee from other sections, and
by taking leases of unoccupied property he fixed his followers as
tenants thereon; until at one time be could command the services
of two hundred stout retainers in any enterprise which he under-
"Of course the life was not a peaceful one, but enforced con-
tinual watchfulness and care. lie was forced to remove his
church from a valley and set it in a plain with the trees all cut
away for a goodly space around, the walls of the church being
made strong enough to resist a siege. It stood in a triangle with
REV. JONATHAN WYNNE. FAYETTE CO.. PA.
his castle, and another strong' residence at Penanmen, so that his
scouts might keep constant watch from the heights of Garreg-beg
on all of them, and give alarm if either were attacked. Certain it
is that he durst not go to church on Sunday without a strong
guard, and leaving a garrison at his residence. Even then, al-
though attended by twenty tall archers, he durst not make known
beforehand that he intended going to church. But, by and by, he
grew so strong that he rooted out the knights from their sanctuary
and drove them to seek safety out of the county ; he also entered
into agreements with the king's officers to maintain the king's
writs throughout the district, so that finally he secured peace and
order in the wildest district in all Wales."
With all his stirring home life Meredith found time to make
two trips to Rome — a great undertaking in those times — but for
what purpose other than travel we are unable to discover. He
died at Gwydir on the 18th day of March 152"), aged about sixty-
five years, and was interred in his own church at Dolwyddelan.
He was married thrice, and left as issue twenty-six children. His
oldest son, William, died without issue, and John, his second son,
received as his portion Gwydir, and the lands in Xantconway,
Dolwyddelan and Llanfrothen. John married Elin Lloyd,
daughter of Mawris John ap Meredith of Khiwaedog, and had,
among other issue, Morris, who was eldest son and inherited
Gwydir; he married Janett, daughter of Sir Richard Bulkley,
Knight of Beaumaris, and died in 1553. He had one son, John,
by this marriage, who succeeded him in the Xantconway estates,
and who was knighted by King Henry VIII in 1611. Sir John
married Sidney, daughter of Sir William Gerard, Lord Chan-
cellor of Ireland, by whom he had eleven sons and two daughters.
He added largely to the family estates, and was one amongst the
foremost citizens of Xorth Wales. He was much interested in
the mineralogy of the country, and did much to develop the valu-
able ore and coal mines of Wales, as well as the immense slate
quarries upon which the principality depends so largely for its
prosperity. In such interests he traveled all over Wales, and was,
perhaps, the best known person in all the land. Xumerous anec-
dotes are still told of his doings and adventures in different locali-
ties. He died in 1G2<J.
His son, Sir Richard, was groom of the chamber to Charles II
and died childless. After various changes the landed possessions
of the family have passed into the hands of Sir Herbert Williams-
Wynne, of Wynnestaye, Wales, who is the present head of that
branch of the family.
Llanrwst is a typical old Welsh town on the right bank of the
Conway. It contains probably three thousand souls on a single
street. It was formerly a great wool market, and in ancient times
was noted for its harps. One of the noteworthy features of the
place is the Church of St. Marys, built in the fifteenth century,
on the site of one much older which was dedicated to St. Grwst or
Rhyslyd, and henr-e the name of the town. In the graveyard ad-
jacent are to be found names of distinguished Welshmen who
flourished in ye olden time. The feature of the church is an
annex called Gwydyr Chapel, which was added by the Wynnes
when they came into possession of the district in the seventeenth
century. This mortuary chapel was designed by Inigo Jones, the
most celebrated architect of western England at that time, and a
native Welshman. A door cut through the wall of the south tran-
sept of the church chancel gives admittance. The room is nearly
square in shape, and perhaps thirty feet in length, filled with
tombs, mural ornaments and brasses of this potent and virile
race. To touch upon the fantastic and sometimes beautiful work
that is here, or mention the worthy courtiers and renowed warriors
that it commemorates, is impossible and unnecessary. But here
among the wild mountains, with the rush of a Highland river
sounding through the open door, there seems somehow a stronger
flavor of romance about these dead and gone lords and ladies, and
chieftains of the vale Conway, than appertains to the tombs of the
great in a homely churchyard. Besides the family tombs of the
Wynnes of Gwydyr, there is to be found here a memento of former
Welsh greatness which awakens livelier emotions than the names
of mere country barons; and this is the stone coffin of no less a
person than Llewellen ap lowerth, the Great King of all Wales.
It was brought from the original tomb at Aberconway to the old
Abbey of Maenan, when the whole establishment was moved under
Edward I ; and at the dissolution of the abbey at the commence-
ment of the Reformation, or soon after, all the royal belongings
REV. ISAAC WYNNE, FAYETTE CO.. PA.
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were brought here. Much, indeed, of the interest in Llanrwst
Church pertains in the woodwork, screens and other treasures that
were conveyed hither from the royal and ancient edifice. Here
also, lies a recumbent effigy in full armor of Howell Coetmore,
who led a detachment of Denbigh men on the bloody field of
Poicters, where Edward the Black Prince won undying glory.
Howell was a Wynne.
Gwydyr Castle is situated one-half mile from Llanrwst, on the
other side of the Conway; long the seat of the Wynnes, but passing
by female line to the Dukes of Ancaster, and by similar line
through the Willoughbys to the D'Eresbys — and now owned by
Lord Carrington. It is supposed to have been designed by Inigo
Jones. A short shady walk leads to it from the town, and the
portals of the old mansion opens out on to the highway. Indeed,
unless you caught sight of the date "1555'' above the door with
the initials "T. W." you might pass it by unnoticed, for all that
can be seen of the glories within. Many old relics of ancient
Wales are to be found there, and especially is shown a beautiful
screen worked by the fingers of Mary, Queen of Scots. Gwydyr,
or Gwaed-dir, means the "land of blood." Two great battles were
fought here: The first in the seventh century by Llywarch Hen,
the poet warrior: the second after the death of the great Welsh
lawmaker, Howell Dda — when Xorth and South Wales met here
in fierce combat, to the worsting of the latter. Xot a great deal of
the original Wynne mansion of 1555 is left, but it is still a beau-
tiful and ancient house, full of carved oak and tapestry, and
Spanish leather, and treasures and relics of great people in-
numerable. Queen Elizabeth and Charles I and the great Earl
of Leicester were entertained here. It is now only occupied by
the owner for short periods. The estate was acquired by the
Wynnes, who bought it of the Coetmores of Poicters fame. By
the roadside near the mansion is the Fountain of St. Albright;
a stream conveyed in pipes from a large reservoir higher up the
mountain. Near here are the Crags Ddu, where, as Taliesin
sings, "are the tombs of the warriors of the Isle of Britain." "The
grave of the son of Offra, after many conflicts at Camelot." "The
grave of Bedwyr is in the ascent of Tryfan."
"On Glydyr's heights behold the grave
Of Ebbidew, that hero brave,
Whose matchless prowess, clad in steel,
Oft made the foe his vengeance feel."
- . -
SUMMER HOME OF BENJAMIN CORSON, FAYETTE CO.. PA.
The famous Charles Wesley, one of the founders of the Meth-
odist denomination, married in his forty-first year Sarah Gwynn
(Wynne), daughter of a Welsh squire, a lady of culture, refine-
ment and piety. They were married at Garth.
Sir Howell y Fwyall (the axe) served with Edward the Black
Prince at the battle of Poicters, and virtually captured the French
King John. For this service he received large lands, and, in addi-
tion, the royal mandate required that a mess of meat should be
set. before Sir Howell every day while he lived. He was also
allowed to quarter the French royal arms with his own, "such
being the ancient right of the conqueror over his prisoner." It is
said that with one stroke of his battle axe he cut off the head of
the king's horse, and took the rider prisoner. His heraldic arms
were: "A battle axe in bend, sinister, argent."
It appears that Meredith, the founder of the Gwydir branch
of the family, served his king in France as a commander of a
considerable body of men, and that he assisted at the siege of
A grandson of Meredith Wynn was Sir Thomas Williams, who
was physician to the person of her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, and
who wrote the first Welsh dictionary." He also made a correct
list of the wives and children of his grandfather, with their de-
In Queen Elizabeth's time there lived John Wynne, Doctor of
the Archers, born at Gwydir. youngest son of John Wynn ap
Mei'edith, being fellow of St. John's College and Doctor of the
University. He arrested John, Duke of Northumberland, for
treason. He gathered a great estate, which he left to bis brother
Griffith. He founded two fellowships and three scholarships at
St. John's College. Cambridge. Mis nephew, Owen Wynn, was
afterwards master of that college. Several other descendants of
Gwydir have filled high place in church and state.
Robert Wynne, third son of the elder John ap Meredith, was
at the siege of Boulogne, where he was wounded. Also in the
harrying of Scotland by Henry VIII. He also accompanied the
King's embassy to Charles V, Emperor of Germany, at a time
when that monarch at the head of five hundred thousand men was
resisting the Moslem invasion of Hungary by Solomon the Mag-
The following important personages in the United Kingdom
are related to tlic Wynnes :
Wynne is the family name of Baron Xewborough ; also of Sir
II. I.. Watkins Williams-Wynne of Wynnestayc ; Earl of Car-
rington of" Givydir is a descendant; Gen. Arthur Singleton, C. B.,
who was through the Egyptian, Afghan and South Afriean wars,
wounded in S. Africa, and promoted to major-general; George
Wynne, editor of Liverpool Mercury; Major Reginald Wynne,
was through the Reil Canadian rebellion, Afriean war with
Paget's rough riders; Col. Trevredyn Rashleigh, son of Llewellen
Wynn, constructor and manager of Indian Railways, was in
Chinese Boxer war, full colonel and A. de C. to Viceroy of India;
William Palmer Wynne, F. R. S., an authority on chemical
science, and secretary of British Society of Chemistry; William
Robert Maurice Wynne, J. P., Lord Lieutenant of Merioneth-
shire, M. P., and constable of Harlech Castle ; Rev. J. R. Edwards
Wynne, professor in Cheltenham College ; Llewellen Wynne-
Jones, Archdeacon of Wrexham.
There are many hotels in East Wales called the "Wynnestaye
Arms." One at Wrexham is the principal inn of the city. One
is at Llanrhaidr-yn-Moehnant, one at Oswestry, one at Llanhryn-
mair, one at Ruabon, and one at Ruthin furnished entertainment
on our trip. Wrexham contains the tomb of Elihu Yale, founder
of Yale College.
Powys Castle stands one mile south of Welshpool, which is
twenty miles west of Shrewsbury. This is the ancient land of
Powys, where Wynn ancestors ruled. Powys Castle is now in
possession of the Earl of Powys, a descendant of the famous Lord
Clive of India.
Corwen, on the river Dee, was the center of the kingdom set up
by Owen Glendower, whose successful revolution and short reign
is the subject of innumerable songs and legends in Welsh litera-
ture. The hill which formed his watch tower and signal station
stands near. Here he assembled his army before the battle
of Shrewsbury. Six miles up the river is a fishing station called
Glyndyfrdwv, from which Glendowr derived his name.
The Cathedral of St. David lies sixteen miles west from Haver-
fordwest, in Pembrokeshire, in the extreme point of AVales. It
is the most important, diocese in AVales. David, the third son
GRAVE OF REV. JONATHAN WYNNE
of Gerald P'itz Walter, was bishop of the diocese for nearly fifty
years, and other members of the family held important offices
therein at other times. Lamphey Palace, one of the residences of
the bishop, is twenty-four miles from Tenby.
Cadwaladcr, the last King of Britain, had Idwallo I, King of
Wales, A. 1). UOO ; who had Roderick Malivinnge, King of Wales,
A. D. 720; who had C'onan Triudoathwv, King of Wales, 755;
who had Eislhf, Queen of Wales, who married Mervin Urich,
818; who had Roderick II (Rodri Mawr), the great King of All
Wales, 843j he married Lady Anghard, daughter of Meuric ap
Dynfnwal. From this line the AYynnes are descended.
It wonld be highly desirable if the family name conld be spelled
uniformly instead of so many different ways. The name of Dr.
Thomas Wynne, the founder of the American branch, should be
adopted and conformed t<>, no difference what lettering may have
been used heretofore.
In Wales most of the present day surnames are only Christian
names modernized. In Cymric the word ab or ap signifies ''son
of." So that "John ap Thomas" means John, the son of Thomas:
and in olden times this is the way the identity of the individual
was kept. Rut in time this became burdensome, as, for instance,
Sir John Wynne would have been ycleplod "John ap Morris ap
John ap Meredith ap Jevan.'' etc., running back interminably.
So in time John ap Thomas became John Thomas, and John ap
John became John Jones. Among the very few real surnames in
Wales, the Wynnes, Bulkleys and .Morgans are most numerous,
and extend backward into remote antiquity. Wynne or Gwynn
means "light'' or "fair-haired."
Penioarth is one of the historic seats of Wales and is still held
by the Wynnes. It contains a great library of Welsh literature
and museum of Welsh relies and antiquities.
Pentr-wyn is an angle of Great Orme mountain, Carnarvon-
shire; named after Wynnes.
The cathedral at Bangor contains the tomb of Owen Gwynedd,
King of Wales, an ancestor of the Wynnes.
Harlech Castle, built by the Xormans, but often in possession
of the Welsh, lies in extreme west, overlooking the sea. Several
of the Wynnes were commanders of the castle, and held positions
of authority there. The famous song, "March of the Men of
Harlech," was written to commemorate the capture of the castle
by the Yorkists in 146S, (luring the wars of the Roses. It was
the last stronghold in North Wales to hold out for Charles I.
The Ber-wyns, a range of hills on the west side of the upper
Dee, in Merionethshire, were named after the Wynnes.
Captain Wynne was a soldier of Charles I who was very highly
esteemed throughout the land. At the siege of Denbigh by the
Parliamentarian- lie was killed while leading a sally. The be-
sieged royalists, not being able to bury him in his own family
graveyard, made a convention with the besiegers, whereby they
carried his remains to the bridge over the stream dividing the
armies and there transferred the coffin to a party of Cromwell's
men, who transported it to ami buried it with military honors
at Llanrhaiadr churchyard.
Cors-y-Gedol is the seat of the extinct Vaughn family, an off-
spring of the Wynnes through female line.
Pentre Voclas, a village in Merioneth", belongs to a Mrs. Wynne.
Xannan was formerly the residence of Howell Selo, an ancestor
of .the Wynnes, who, although the kinsman, was the inveterate
foe of Owen Glendower, the last of the old royal race to contend
against England for the independence of Wales. It is situated
between two and three miles from Dolgelly, the road by which it
is approached being a continual ascent, and it is supposed to
"occupy a loftier site than any other gentleman's house in
Britain." In the park of Xannan stood, until 1S13, an oak meas-
uring 28 feet in circumference, in the hollow trunk of which,
tradition relates, the body of Howell Selo was concealed after he
had been slain by a party headed by Owen Glendower. It was
known as the "Demon Oak" and the "Haunted Oak." Sir Walter
Scott refers to it and to the incidents connected with it in his
note> on "Marmion."
Xear the town of Rnabon (once the residence of Dr. Thomas
Wynne) is "Wynnestaye," the splendid seat of Sir Watkins
Williams-Wynn. Bart., M. P. It is an imposing edifice, and
contains many tine apartments, embellished by family portraits
by Vandyke, Knellar and Sir Joshua Reynolds. The park is
eight miles in circumference, and has some of the finest trees in
Wales. Close to the park gates is the church with monuments of
the Wynne family. The long avenue (one mile) and the Water-
_-_;__ ■ -— ._. ■ - >-^-^=^ J , ■--„-- ■ . . ■
GRAVE OF MRS. MARY WYNNE
loo Tower are noteworthy. From the tower a beautiful walk
leads along the Dee to the mausoleum erected by the owner of
Wyimestaye to the memory of the officers who fell in the Irish
rebellion of 17U8. The park also contains the ruins of an old
fort with three towers, and may have been the origin of the triple-
towered seal which Dr. Wynne used as his own in America. Xot
far away is visible Eliseg's Pillar, erected in the eighth century
by Concenn in memory of his great-grandfather Eliseg, Prince of
Powys, an ancestor of the Wynnes.
Rug, situated one mile from Oorwen, is the seat of Hon. C.
II. Wynne, and is a beautiful place. Here are preserved the
knife, fork and dagger once used by the last sovereign of Wales,
Carew Castle, home of the Carews, is located six and a half
miles from Tenby, near Pembroke, on a creek of Milford Haven.
It dates from the twelfth century.
At Pettws-y-Coed you find "a walk up the vale of the Lledr
to Dolwyddelan Castle (pronounced Doolooithelan). The name
indicates it to have been built by the Osbers, called by the Welsh
'"Wyddel." It is as wild a looking fortress as one can conceive.
It is twenty -four miles southwest of Llanrwst, and was the first
residence of Meredith Wynne in the laud of Denbighshire. It is
memorable as the birthplace of Llewellen the Great, King of All
Wales. It was the last stronghold in Xorth Wales to withstand
the forces of Edward 1.
Sir John Wynne's son, Richard, was a groom of the chamber
to the king, and accompanied the Duke of Buckingham to Spain
for a bride to the king. Henry VIII, in 1020.
The Mountain of Mod Winn lies in the vicinity of Snowdon.
Xear it is Dolbadam Castle, on the site of the old Welsh tower
of Mael-gwn, King of Wales in the sixth century. Later, the
Xormans built the castle which was afterwards captured by our
ancestor, King Owen Gwynedd, and remained his capital during
his reign. It is in the heart of Snowdon, and is nearly inac-
cessible. It is the only castle in Snowdon. It overlooks the val-
ley, and the entire pass of Llanbaris is visible from it. It is a
small structure of its class, being only twenty-five feet in diameter
and seventy-five feet high. '•Owen Goch, brother of King
Llewellan, was imprisoned here for twenty years for having joined
in rel>ellion against his In-other."
The 2nd Royal Tribe of Wales was the one from which Rhys
ap Tewdor was descended.
Dr. Samuel Johnson, LI.. P., the eminent English philosopher,
made a trip through Wales in 1774, and mentions: "We went
from Bangor to Carnarvon, where we met Sir Thomas Wynne
and dined with him."
In Arthur Fox-Davis' interesting work on the "Art of Her-
aldry'' occurs the following item: "An early and interesting
Irish example of marshaling is afforded by a dimidiated coat of
Clare and Fitzgerald, which now figures on the official seal of the
Provosts of Youghal (Clare.: "Or, three chevrons gules." Fitz-
gerald : "Argent, a saltire gules, with a label of five points in
chief.") Both these coats are halved, the result from the mar-
riage of Richard Clare, Earl of Hereford, with Juliana, daughter
and heir of Maurice Fitzgerald, feudal lord of Inchiqum and
The County of Montgomery, Wales, was named after Roger de
Montgomery, who was made Earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury,
and conquered a large scope of Welsli territory. He built the
Castle of Shrewsbury, though the old keep is now the only part
remaining that belonged to the Montgomery regime. His daugh-
ter married Fitz Hamon, and their daughter married Henry of
Gloucester, son of King Henry I of England. After the unfor-
tunate contest between King Henry and the Montgomeries, who
espoused the cause of Henry's brother, Robert of Normandy,
which resulted in the banishment of the Montgomeries and the
confiscation of their estates, Pembroke was given to De Saer, and
from thence passed to Gerald de Windsor.
- >. • .-. ■ -" *
■■ - i - > -• - -^f-
MARSH FARM. CHESTER CO.. PA.
THE WYXXES COME TO AMERICA.
THOMAS WYNNE'S early years were passed in the wild
Welsh country, in the ordinary walks of life. His father
died when he was eleven years old, and although the inclinations
of the child were strongly set towards the career of a physician,
yet by reason of the financial condition of the family he was forced
to take up a trade in order to procure means wherewith to study
medicine. This trade was that of a cooper, at which he became au
adept. About the year 1655-7, in the time of the Commonwealth,
and after the wars between Parliament and King Charles I
had resulted in the dethronement and death of the latter, and
after public affairs had quieted down, young Thomas met and
married his first wife, Martha Buttall. At this period religious
feeling was intense, and the Cromwellian struggle had given life
and vitality to many new and independent sects who were ex-
ceedingly fervent in proselyting, under the tolerant policy of
the great Commoner. Among these there were none more
fervent than the Society of Friends, called by outsiders
''Quakers." George Fox had started his movement auspiciously,
calling the people "to give sincere and earnest heed to the inner
light — the light of Christ — which God had placed in every hu-
man heart." There was great independence in religious thought,
and the Buttalls were affiliated with the Independents. They
were identified with the town of Wrexham, and during the mis-
sionary trip and preaching of Fox in Wales they joined his
church and became active workers therein. At Wrexham,
Thomas Wynne became acquainted with a celebrated Friends
minister, John ap John, and himself became converted and
joined the society's church there. Mention is made in Posse's
Sufferings, of "One Thomas Gwyn (Wynne) and others who
were caught in their own hired house, and taken to the gaol at
Thomas and Martha Wynne had five daughters and one son,
all born in Wales. They were:
Mary, born in 1659, married Dr. Edward Jones in 1GT7, in
Tabitha, married and removed to London. The name of her
husband or progeny are unknown.
Rebecca, born 1662, came to Pennsylvania, married Solomon
Thomas, March, 1GS5, no issue; married John Dickinson, July
Sidney, married Oct. 20, 1090, to William Chew, of Arundel
Hannah, married at Merion, Pa., Aug. 25, 1695, to Daniel
Humphreys, at that time one of the largest landowners in the
Jonathan, the only son and youngest child. He married about
1694/ at Philadelphia, Miss Sarah Greaves, (or Graves).
About the year 1670 Martha Wynne died. She was the mother
of all'of Thomas Wynne's children. A few years after her death,
he married a widow, Elizabeth Rowden. The latter died prior
to the summer of 1676; and on the 20th day of May, 1676, Dr.
Wynne married Elizabeth Maud, another widow, a person pos-
sessing considerable property and belonging to an influential
family of Flintshire. Dr. Wynne then resided at Carwys. Dr.
Wynne became a minister of the Society of Friends, and appears
to have preached and traveled in various places in Wales and Eng-
land. He published in 1677 a pamphlet or "Tract on the An-
tiquity of Quakers." A writer named William Jones published
a reply to this tract, and embellished his writing by printing a
cartoon representing ''Thomas Wynne tempted by the devil." Dr.
Wynne replied to this pamphlet by another tract in 1679. Copies
of the original edition of Dr. Wynne's are preserved in the
Friends Library, Philadelphia, and are highly prized. Following
is a reproduction of the title pages of these tracts, together with
some extracts from their texts, which will throw some light upon
the early life and surroundings of young Wynne.
RACHEL WYNNE ZEUBLIN AND HUSBAND
Dr. Thomas Wynnes First Tract.
Antiquity of the Quakers
Proved Out of the Sckiptures of Teuth.
Published in Love to tlio Papists, Protestants, Presbyterians,
Independents and Anabaptists, With a Salutation of
Pure Love to All the Tender-Hearted
But More Especially to Flintshire, Denbighshire, Carnar-
vonshire and Anailesea.
By Their Countryman and Friend, Thomas Wynne.
Mat. 7 : 14. —Narrow is the way which leadeth to Life, and few there be
that find it.
Psalm 1 : 1. — Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the
ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the
1 Thess. 5 : 21. — Prove all things, but hold fast that which is good.
Printed in the year 1677.
Dr. Thomas Wynne's Second Book.
Anti-Christian Conspiracy Detected
Satan's Champion Defeated:
Being a Reply to an Envious and Scoeeilods Libel,
Without Any Xajie to It.
WORK FOR A COOPER
Being Also a Vindication or My Book, Entitled, The
Antiquity of the Quakers,
Fhom the Base Insinuations, False Doctrine and False
Charges Therein Contained Against Me, My Book,
and Against God's People, Called Quakers,
Bine Thomas Wynne.
Printed in the year 1679.
JONATHAN WYNNE ZEUBLIN. PENDLETON. IND.
EXTRACTS FROM DS. WYNNE S SECOSD TKACT.
"It's known to many now living in this my native country
wherein I live (and it being also near the place where 1 was
born), that my genius from a child did lead me to surgery,
insomuch that before I was ten years old, 1 several times over-
ran my school and home when I heard of any one's being wounded
or hurt, and used all my endeavors then to set fractures and dis-
locations reduced, and wounds dressed, and have been so long
missing, that my parents thought they had lost me, for which I
underwent severe correction, and the troublesome times being then,
my parents sustained great plunder, and my father died before I
was eleven years old, and my mother not being then able to pro-
duce so great a sum of money as to set me to chirurgery, I betook
myself to this honest and necessary calling he upbraids me with
(cooper), with several other things that in those days pleased my
mind ; yet during all this time, I left no opportunity to inform
myself in the practice of Ghyrurgery, and continued this until I
became acquainted with an honest Friend and good Artist in
Chyrurgery, whose name was Richard Moore of Salop, who seeing
my forwardness to Chyrurgery, did further me in it, and brought
me to Defections in Salop ; the Anatomists being men of known
worth in practice, whose names are Dr. Needham and Dr. Hallins,
Who at this day are doubtless of deserved repute in their profes-
sions (in England), and I being then expert in drills, and handy
in Knife and Lancet and other instruments for that purpose, I
set on making a Spelliton of a man's hones, which I only with
the assistance of Richard Moore performed to their content, at
which time they thought me tit to be licensed the practice of
Chyrurgy; and this is near 20 years ago, and soon after I being
taken prisoner to Denbigh, where I remained a prisoner near six
years for the testimony of Jesus. I then betook myself wholly to
the practice of Chyrurgy, and God was good to me in my under-
takings, to Him he the glory forever. And why then did not my
envious adversary to the aforesaid instruments have added the
Plaister Box and Salvatory, the Trafine and Head Saw, the Am-
putation Saw, and the Catling, the Cautery Sirring and Catheter,
with many more which with God's assistance I have used with
good success, for the space of near 20 years last past (which was
near thrice as long as I used those lie speaks of) to tlie great com-
fort of many, some of them, their limbs gangrened, others frac-
tured, others dislocated, others desperately wounded by Gun
Shots, others pierced thorow with Rapiers, others with Ulcers and
Fistulas and Cancers, which I extertated, and by God's assistance
cured, yea, many scores are living monuments of God's Mercy to
this day, who were spectacles of great misery in these respects.
* * *
THE COXCJ.rsiOX TO THE WELSH.
Y cymry anwyl cynor yr apostol oedd at bawb yd dynt brafi
pob peth a glynu wrth y pcth fvdda, ag nid wgf yii disyfy dim
yngwaneg-genych : Agos gwnei di velly yd dy gydwybod a ynno
anwyl a cei di wir far no wreiddin y doeth lythur ar atebwr.
POSTSCRIPT BY WILLIAM GIBSON.
"Thomas Wynn is known amongst his neighbors to be a sober,
honest man. 1 have known him for above 20 yrs last past, and I
never knew or heard other of him, till this profane scoffer's pam-
phlet appeared against him.
"London, the 25th of 8th month, 1670."
It is supposed that Dr. Wynne was a graduate of Oxford or
Cambridge, as the name appears upon the roll of both colleges —
one in 1667, and the other in 1670. In 16S2, Dr. Wynne and
others went as a committee to visit the English government at
Whitehall, to try to secure an amelioration of the laws against
Quakers. At this time he was a resident of Bronvadog, near
Caerwys. In 1682, he evidently made up his mind to leave the
old sod and seek greater liberty in the new world, as we find him
in conjunction with John ap John, effecting the purchase from
William Penn of five thousand acres of land in Pennsylvania, to
be laid out in the Welsh tract adjoining Philadelphia. It is sup-
posed that his daughter, .Mary, and her husband, Dr. Edward
Jones, had already emigrated to America, and it is likely that
their letters home had much to do with influencing the decision
of Dr. Wynne.
At any rate, he took passage along with William Penn in the
good ship "Welcome,'' which sailed from Bristol about the 10th
of September, 1682, with a hundred passengers for Penn's Colony
SAMUEL WYNNE. CHESTER CO.. f A.
in America, and which reached Xew Castle, Pa., on the 24th of
October, same year. Smallpox broke out on board ship soon after
leaving England, and about one-third of the company died from
its ravages. In that age, of course, medical science had few means
with which to tight the dread scourge, and although Dr. Wynne,
the only physician aboard, did everything possible to mitigate the
disease, yet the trip was one of much suffering for everyone
aboard. There is still extant a legal instrument witnessed by
Dr. Wynne during the voyage, being the will of Thomas Ileriott,
who died at sea Sept. 19, 1G82. The private seal, used upon this
occasion by Dr. Wynne, represents a "three-towered castle," and
may have represented the particular branch of the Wynne family
to which the owner belonged.
Following is. a list of the passengers on this ship during this
memorable voyage. It presents a collection of people who are as
important as those who landed from the Mayflower on Plymouth
Rock, or those who effected the settlements on the James river, in
John Barber and Elizabeth, his wife, eldest daughter of John
Longhurst, of Shipley, Sussex county, England.
William Bradford (printer) of Leicester, Eng.
William Brucknian, Mary, his wife, and children, Sarah and
Mary, of Billinghurst, Sussex, Eng.
John Carver, and Mary, his wife, of Hertfordshire.
Benjamin Chambers, of Rochester, Kent.
Thomas Chroasdale and Agnes, his wife, and six children.
Ellen Cowgill and family.
John Fisher, Margaret, his wife, and son John.
Thomas Fitzwater and sons, Thomas and George, of Ham-
worth, Middlesex. His wife, Mary, and children, Josiah and
Mary, died on passage.
Thomas Gillett, John Hey, Richard Ingelo, Joshua Morris.
William Lushington, Hannah Mogdridge, George Thompson.
Arthur Havhurst, his wife and family.
Thomas Heriott, of Hurst Pier, Sussex. Died.
Isaac Ingram, of Gatton, Surrey.
Giles Knight, Mary, his wife, and son, Joseph, of Gloucester.
David Ogden, probably of London.
Evan Oliver, with Jeanc, his wife, and children — David, Eliza-
beth, John, Hannah, Mary, Evan and Seaborn, of Radnorshire,
Thomas Pearson, of Cheshire.
John Rowland and Priscilla, his wife, of Sussex.
John Longhurst, from Chillington, Sussex.
John Stackhoiise and wife, Margery, of Yorkshire.
Richard Townsend, wife Anna and son James — born on the
Welcome, in the Delaware river — from London.
William Wade, of Parish Hankton, Sussex.
Thomas Walmesly, Elizabeth, his wife, and six children, of
Nicholas Wain, Yorkshire, Joseph Woodroofe.
Thomas Wrightsworth and wife, of Yorkshire.
Thomas Wyxxk, chirurgeon, of Cacrwys, Flintshire, Xorth
Jeane Matthews, William Smith, Hannah Townsend, daughter
of Richard Townsend. Dennis Rochford of Emstorfey, Wexford,
Ireland, and his wife Mary, daughter of John lleriott, with their
daughters, Grace and Mary, who died at sea.
Soon after the arrival of Dr. Thomas Wynne in Pennsylvania
— at a preliminary meeting held at Chester on Nov. 4, 1682 — he
and two others were appointed a committee to ask the Proprietor,
William Penn, to grant a constitution to the Colony.
He was present at the first Monthly meeting of the Society of
Friends held in Philadelphia, Nov. 9, 1682. In this connection
it may be mentioned that he was selected as one of a building com-
mittee to select a site and erect a meeting house, for the Society.
This was accomplished successfully, and the edifice built on a
lot bought of Thomas Halme on the northwest corner of Front
and Mulberry, nee Halme, streets in 1085. It was called the Bank
Meeting House and was the first Friends church in America. It
served the Society for some years. It was a wooden structure
of very primitive construction, and in 169S had become so dilapi-
dated that it was considered dangerous and was pulled down to
avoid accident. It was replaced in 1703 by another house of
worship on the same lot — being a reconstruction of Center Square
Meeting House, which had stood upon a part of the present City
JOSEPH WYNNE. INDIANA
In the History of Philadelphia it is stated that "among the first
brick houses built was that of Thomas Wynne. It was located on
Front street, west side, above Chestnut street." In fact, Chestnut
street was originally named Wynne street, and only after the
determination was arrived at to name the east and west streets
after varieties of forest trees was the name changed to Chestnut.
It is now the principal fashionable shopping street in the city.
At the first regular Assembly of the Colony, held at Philadel-
phia, Jan. 12, 1683, Dr. Wynne was chosen Speaker. He was
one of the Representatives from Philadelphia county, the Assem-
bly being composed of nine members from each of the counties
of Philadelphia, Chester, Rucks, Xew Castle, Kent and Sussex.
Of course, it should be understood that the county boundaries at
that time were very much more extensive than they are at present.
In the account of the marriage of his step-daughter, Elizabeth
Rowden, to John Broeh, May 1, 1684, mention is made of the
prospective departure of Thomas Wynne and wife for England,
and it is believed they went over with Penn in the ketch "En-
deavor," which sailed from Philadelphia, June 12, 1CS4, and
reached England in seven weeks. During his stay there "he with
twenty-three others were on their way to the meeting-house at
White-Hart-Court, London, and were arrested in Angel Court
and sent to prison." The charge was "riotous assemblage" —
which seems strange when made against devout Quakers — but by
perjured evidence they were sent to Newgate and fined. It is not
known how long he remained in England; but when he returned
to the Colony he settled on an estate at Lewes. Here he served
as Justice of the Peace, being appointed March 3, lfiST. In 16SS
he served as Representative from Sussex county in the Assembly
at Philadelphia. On May G, same year, his name appears as
witness to the marriage of the daughter of Thomas Lloyd, Deputy
Governor of the Province. In 1691, Dr. Wynne was in Phila-
delphia. He attended the Monthly Meeting there, November and
He made his will Jan. 16, 1(;;>2. This was probated Feb. 20,
1602, at Philadelphia. (Book A, page 200;) Soon after making
his will he was taken sick and died at the age of sixty-two years.
He was buried in Friends Cemetery, Philadelphia, Jan. 17, 1692.
His will bequeaths to his wife, Elizabeth Wynne, during life, and
after death to his son, Jonathan, his messuage and plantation near
the town of Lewes. lie also gives to his son, Jonathan, the plan-
tation of two hundred acres at Cedar Creek, in Sussex county.
He gives one-half of his personal estate to his children in America,
viz.: Jonathan, Mary, Rebecca, Sidney and Hannah. His
daughter, Tabitha, was living in England; he gave her fifty shil-
lings as a last mark of love, she having already been provided for.
The other half of his personal estate he bequeathed to his wife,
Elizabeth, whom he makes executrix; and "makes his friends,
Thomas Lloyd, Deputy Governor of this Province, and Griffith
Owen, to be overseers." The inventories value the plantation and
mansion at Lewes at eighty pounds, and the two hundred acres at
Cedar Creek ai twenty pounds. A negro man, a negro woman and
a negro child one and a half years old are value at sixty pounds ;
one servant youth, with one aud a half years to serve, three
pounds. The total inventory foots up £430, Is, 3d.
Dr. Thomas Wynne was a man of strong mind, broad views
and sterling integrity. That he possessed the confidence of his
neighbors, the many positions of responsibility and authority be-
stowed upon him most thoroughly attest. His life began amid the
narrow surrounding of a clannish Welsh life, broadened into a
cosmopolitan career amid royal courts and colonial assemblies,
embracing two hemispheres ; and through all his acts appears the
indications of calm judgment and wholesome common sense. He
was the worthy American ancestor of the family, and as such we
may proudly regard him. The following article regarding him,
which appeared in Vol. 27 of the Philadelphia Friend, we repro-
duce as tending to show the estimation in which he was held by
"Thomas Wynne, before his removal to America, resided at
Caerwis, in Flintshire, North Wales. lie was early convinced of
the Truth, and was an able minister of the gospel of Christ. In
1681, we find Richard Davies, calling upon his "friend Thomas
Wynne," who lived not far from Bishop Lloyd's residence, and
obtaining his company in a visit to that dignitary. In the begin-
ning of 10S2, about the time of London Yearling Meeting,
Charles Llovd, Thomas Wvnne, Richard Davies, George White-
HOME OF JOHN WYNNE. CRAWFORD CO.. OHIO
head and others, called on Lord Hyde about the Sufferings of
Friends in England, particularly at Bristol, and had a satisfactory
opportunity. "The number of prisoners on a list delivered to
Lord Hyde, to he presented to the king, amounted to one hundred
and thirty-nine; of which there were eighteen aged women, from
sixty and upwards, and eight children. In the latter end of the list
it was said, "Blessed are the merciful for they shall obtain mercy.' "
Soon after Yearly Meeting, Thomas Wynne must have sailed
for America. He was at the first Monthly .Meeting held in Phila-
delphia, Eleventh Month 9th, 1682, and was one of those ap-
pointed to select a sight for a .Meeting House, and to consider the
manner and form of the building. He was elected one of the
First Assembly of the Province, which met at. Chester, 10th Mo.
4th, 16S2, and of the second, which assembled in Philadelphia,
First Month 12th, and again Eighth Month, 1683. Of this last
Assembly he was chosen speaker. His husiness in Philadelphia
appears to have heen that of a surveyor; and he was, according
to Proud, *'a person of note and good character." Whiting says
that he was "An ancient, eminent public Friend."
Before his removal to America, he had employed his pen in
defense of the Truth he professed. His first essay as an author
was printed in 1077, and was entitled, "The Antiquity of the
Quakers Proved Out of the Scriptures of Truth." This brought
forth an antagonist with an abusive attack on the hook and the
Quakers. The title of this attack, as we learn from Thomas
Wynne's reply to it, was, "Work for a Cooper." In 1679, Thomas
came out with a defense and answer to his opponent twice as large
as his original work. Tt was called, "An Anti-Christian Con-
spiracy Detected, and Satan's Champion Defeated ; being a Reply
to an Envious, Scurrilous Libel, called Work for a Cooper, etc."
In America he was much employed in religious matters, as well
as in public affairs. He was one appointed by his brethren to
prepare a brief, yet full account of the order of Society in the
meetings for Discipline in England, that it might he for the gov-
ernment of the meetings here. The various religious services in
which In- was employed, indicate that he had not permitted the
public affairs in which he was necessarily engaged to eat out his
living concern for the Truth, or to interfere with his religious
duties. In the 5th Month, l«',s4, he laid before his Friends, at
their Monthly Meeting, a prospect he had of paying a visit with
his wife to England, on business, and requesting their consent.
The Meeting considering the matter agreed thereto, and directed
a certificate to he prepared to Friends in "England, Wales and
elsewhere," signifying that Friends were consenting to his de-
Thomas Wynne had married a widow, Elizabeth Tiowden, and
a daughter of her's of the same name of the mother, being about
accomplishing her marriage with John Brock, the parents delayed
sailing until the Oth Month, that they might lie with them on that
important occasion. Edward Jones, a valuable friend from the
other side of the Schuylkill, belonging to what was afterwards
called Harford or Haverford Monthly Meeting, had married, it
appears, another daughter of Elizabeth Rowden, or one of Thomas
Wynne's. We find this extract given in Proud, under date 16S3,
as a note to William Penn's account of the Province: "Edward
Jones, son-in-law to Thomas Wynne, living on the Sculkil, had,
with ordinary cultivation, for one grain of English barley, seventy
stalk and cars of barley : and it is common in this country, from
one bushel sown, to reap forty, often fiity T and sometimes sixty,
and three pecks of wheat sow an acre here."
There is reason to believe that Thomas Wynne and wife accom-
panied William Penn to England in the Ketch Endeavor, which
sailed from Philadelphia mi the IL'th of the 6th Month, and which
after a voyage of about seven weeks, made her port in England.
We have little information respecting his labors iu that journey,
but we find him in the Xinth Month, in London. On the 23rd of
that month, his friend, William Gibson, who had written a post-
script to his last publication, was buried. A meeting was held on
this occasion in White-hart-Oourt Meeting House, and it was
thought that more than one thousand persons attended the body to
the burial place. At the grave it was publicly said of the body,
"That it hail been often beaten and in prison for Christ's sake."
Soon after this, Thomas Wynne and twenty-three others who
were on their way to White-hart-Court Meeting House, being
stopped in Angel-court, by the officers of the law, and there ar-
rested, were committed to prison. On the Eighth of the Tenth
Month, they were brought before the sessions at Gildhall, on the
charge of being guilty of a riotous assembly with force and arms,
WYNNE COKE FURNACES. FAYETTE CO.. PA.
etc., in White-hart-Court. The prisoners plead not guilty. In the
first place they had not been in White-hart-Conrt, as the evidence
produced for the prosecution itself testified. This objection was
overruled, on the ground that the place where they were arrested
was in the same ward of the city. They then stated that their
being together in Angel-court was not intentional, but accidental,
as they had been stopped whilst passing through. The only evi-
dence given against them was, that they were arrested in a com-
mon thoroughfare when a woman spoke, the witness knew not
what. Notwithstanding the errors in the charge, and the nature
of the evidence, prisoners were all committed to Xewgate, and
How long Thomas Wynne remained in England we do not
know; but on his return to America, he settled in Sussex, one of
the three lower counties. To represent this county about the
First of 16SS, he was elected to the Assembly, and was a diligent
and efficient member thereof. That body met in Philadelphia,
3rd Month 10th, 16SS, and continued its sittings until the 19th,
and in that short period transacted much business. On all the
most important committees, Thomas Wynne was one, and perhaps
on account of his age and experience, was generally named first.
During the meeting of the Assembly, wc find him pleading before
Council, against one of the rangers of Sussex county, who had
killed a poor man's hogs as he thought unrighteously, if not un-
On the Sixth of the Fifth Month, Kachel Lloyd, a daughter of
Thomas Lloyd, Deputy Governor of the Province, was married to
Samuel Preston. The marriage was accomplished at a meeting
held at the house of Frances Cornwall, in Sussex, and Thomas
Wynne, his wife and children were among the signers of the cer-
tificate. Probably this was the meeting to which they then be-
longed. In the Eleventh Month, 10SO, he was appointed one of
the justices of the peace for Sussex county, which office he seems
to have held until he returned to Philadelphia to reside, towards
the close of the year 1691. He was at the Monthly Meeting in
the latter place in the Eleventh Month, and on the Twenty-sixth
of the Twelfth Month, of that year, and the appointments of his
brethren manifested that they still had a high opinion of his
weight and judgment. In less than three weeks after his last
meeting, his earthly course terminated. Ripe in years, and rich
in the respect of his fellow citizens, lie was translated with short
illness from his earthly scene id" lahor, to receive the reward of
faithful dedication to the Lord's service. lie was buried at
Philadelphia, First Month, 17th. 1C,!)2.
The following episode, which came so near changing the history
of the Wynne family, is inserted as throwing light upon the
dangers attending even the godliest lives in early colonial days:
"Opinions id' William l'i nn have differed. It is doubtful,
however, if the founder of Pennsylvania was ever more savagely
criticised than by one who was noted for his piety, whose whole
life was passed in the efforts to do good unto his fellow men, and
whose erudition was conspicuous, he having made uncommon
progress in Latin, Greek and Hebrew at the age of twelve. Later
in life, in order to enlarge his field of usefulness, he went on
studying French, Spanish and the Iroquois Indian tongue, that he
might preach and write in these languages to those he was likely
to meet or reach by his writings.
'"This man was Cotton Mather, D. D., son of Increase Mather,
and he was horn at Boston. Feb. 12, 1663. He was notorious
for his belief in witchcraft, and for the persecutions he provoked
against those charged with it by his zeal in spreading the delusion.
Xo doubt this trait of character accounts for the views he ex-
pressed in a letter, which is now among the treasured possessions
of the Massachusetts Historical Society. His zeal and his esti-
mate of Papa Penn are perhaps host example! by the following
quaint letter which he wrote in 1GS1:
Mather's qveek lettek.
"' 'To the aged and beloved John Higginson:
"'There he now at sea a shipp (for our friend Elias Flolcroft
of London did advise me by the last pack* t that it would he some
time in August) called the Welcome, which has aboard it a hun-
dred or more of the hereticks and malignants called Quakers, with
William Penn, the scamp, at the head of them. The General
Court has accordingly sriven secret orders to Master Malachi
Haxett of the brig Porpoise to wavlav said Welcome as near the
end ot Cod as may be and make captives of Penn and his
ungodly crew, so that the Lord may be glorified and not mocked
OLD WYNNE HOMESTEAD-WALTER LAUGHEAD. AT OLIPHANT
on the soil of this new country with the heathen worshipps of these
people. Much spoil may be made by selling the whole lot to Bar-
badoes, where slaves fetch good prices in runiinc and sugar, and
wc shall not only do the Lord great service by punishing the
wicked, hut shall make great gayne for His ministers and people.
" 'Yours in the bonds of Christ, Cottox Matiiek.' "
It has been suggested by some authorities that the John ap
John, who was a partner with Dr. Thomas Wynne in the purchase
of Pennsylvania lands, was really the latter's elder brother; but
if such is the fact it cannot be verified. Thatcher's American
Medical Biography of Boston, 1S2S, savs: "Thomas Wynne, an
eminent Welsh physician, who had practiced medicine several
years with high reputation in London, and his brother came to
this country in 1GS2. With the original settlers they located
themselves in Philadelphia and were the earliest physicians of
that city." In the records at Philadelphia the following appears:
"The Proprietary by deed of lease and release dated July 14,
1681, grant to John ap John and Thomas Wynne, their heirs,
&c, 5,000 acres." Another record shows: "5th mo., 7th, 1GS2. —
John ap John of the Parish of Ruabon, in County of Denbigh,
yeoman, and Thomas Wynne of Caerwys, County Flint, chirur-
geon, conveys, &c." These several accounts are conflicting. A
family descended from John Wynne, "who was a brother of Dr.
Thomas Wynne, who came to Philadelphia in ship Welcome," is
reported in Virginia. A son of this John was killed by Indians
in Virginia a few years later. Watson's Annals of Philadelphia
mentions that a brother of Dr. Thomas Wynne came to this
country. "This may have lwn John Wynne, who was on a jury
in 16S7 in Sussex county. Same man appears as attorney in a
case reported in Sussex County Court records of same year."
There was a Dr. John Wynne, whose will was probated in An-
napolis, Md., in 1684. *
A Thomas Wynne was in Maryland in 1071. ' lie was a sub-
sheriff in 1G7S, and Doorkeeper of Colonial Assembly. He was
son of Gruffydd Wynn of Bryn yr Owen ap Richard ap John
Wynn of Trefechan, near Wrexham and Ruabon, Denbighshire.
In Conway i- pointed out the Castle of Plas-Hawr, built by
Robert Wynne in 1."> S ">, and at which Queen Elizabeth was enter-
tained; now occupied by Earl of Mostyn, a descendant.
The third wife of Dr. Thomas Wynne was a sister of his first
The log-book of the ship Submission begins Sept. G, and ends
Oct. 2, 10^2: "Landed at Chaptants Bay; passengers, (among
others) Rebecca Wynne, age 20, dau. of Dr. Wynne."
Thomas and Elizabeth Wynne obtained deed to Fisher's Island
in Broadkill marshes, in (Delaware) county, containing 175
acres, to be confirmed.
Dr. Thomas Wynne once preached at Merion (Pa.) Meeting
of Friends. While William Penn was riding across country to
attend this meeting he overtook a maiden walking barefoot, carry-
ing her shoes, as was the custom. He invited her to a seat behind
him on the horse. She accepted, but when near the church told
him she would have to alight to put on her shoes, and asked his
name that she might thank him. When she learned with whom
she was riding, she said that if she could ride barefoot with the
governor she would go on and hear the preaching in the same
JONATHAN WYNNE. CRAWFORD CO.. OHIO
THE only son of Dr. Thomas Wynne was, as we have seen,
Jonathan Wynne, who was also the youngest child. Ac-
cording to his father's will, he received the major portion of the
family estate, to-wit: The reversion of the plantation at Lewes,
Suffolk county, Pa., subject to his step-mother's life interest, the
Cedar Creek plantation of two hundred acres in Suffolk, and an
equal share with the other children in one-half of the personal
estate of his father. It is not conclusively known when Jonathan
was born, but it is known that he was born in Wales, and that he
came to America with his sister Mary and her husband, Dr. Ed-
ward Jones, in 1681, preceding his father's immigratiou by nearly
a year. In 169-i he was married in Philadelphia to Miss Sarah
Greaves, or Graves, and he settled on a tract of land belonging to
him a few miles northwest of Philadelphia, at a point uow em-
braced in the beautiful suburb of Wynnfield. Here in 1701 he
built a substantial stone dwelling, an illustration of which is
shown elsewhere in this volume, and christened the plantation or
estate, "Wynnestaye," which is a favorite appellation for manors
in Wales. The "staye" signifies in Gaelic, "field" or "ditch."
Put little is known of his general life. We find him mentioned a
few times in public documents. Tor instance: In 1705 Jonathan
Wynne enters a petition to the Committee on Public Property,
asserting that he is the heir of Dr. Thomas Wynne, and that his
father had never taken up all of the original purchase of five
thousand acres which he had bought of William Penn while still
a resi<lent of Wales; and praying an investigation of the same, and
in case such should prove to be the fact, that the residue should be
forthwith set off. On the 18th day of 4th month, 170."., the com-
mittee issued the following mandate to the Colonial Surveyor:
"These are to authorize and require thee to survey and lay out
to the said Jonathan Wynne, tliu said quantity of four hundred
acres of land in the Welsh Tract, if there to lie found vacant, or
elsewhere, according to the Methods of Townships, where not sur-
veyed, or seated hy the Indians; and make returns by a copy of
this, certified by the secretary into the Surveyor General's Office;
which said survey, in ease the said Jonathan Wynn hath a right to
so much yet untaken up shall be valid, otherwise shall he void and
of no effect. (liven under our hands and Province Seal at Phila-
delphia the 18th of 4th Mo,, 1705.
To David Powell, Edw. Shippen.
Surveyor. Griffith Owen.
We also find in the minutes of Merion Preparative Meeting of
Friends, 2nd of 4th Mo., 1 704, the following extract: "Jonathan
Wynne being also desirous to join with Friends in their Collec-
tion, being likewise brought up among Friends, is also left to his
In the list of marriages kept by the Radnor Monthly Meeting,
it appears that Jonathan Wynne was a witness to the following
marriages which occurred at .Merion:
"26th of 10th .Mo. 1699 — John CadAvalader and Martha Jones."
" tith of 10th Mo. 1699 -Robert Fletcher and Elizabeth John."
" 4th of 8th Mo. 17(>r. — Fonathan Jones and Gainor Owens."
The- Joneses were bis nephew and niece, being the children of
bis sister Mary. From minutes of Radnor Monthly Meeting, 11th
Mo., 1712, appears this extract : "It is desired that the overseers
of .Merion Meeting continue their care in relation, to Jonathan
Wynne." And again in the minutes of the 12th of 12th Mo.,
171-']: "It is desired that the overseers of [Merion Meeting con-
tinue their care in relation to Jonathan Wynne.''
Glenn, in bis history of Merion, says that it appears that
Jonathan Wynne settled in Blockley township, which was formerly
a part of the Liberty Lands of Philadelphia, at an early date.
Whether the bouse, "Wynnestaye," which be built in 1701, was
erected on land purchased by him personally, or upon part of the
Liberty Lands belonging to bis father's joint purchase with John
THOMAS WYNNE. OF TEXAS
ap John, is not known. It is presumed to be the latter, as Dr.
Thomas Wynne owned considerable land in this part of the coun-
try, and he received grant of 250 acres in Radnor township May
29, 1 004.
To Jonathan Wynne and his wife Sarah were born three sons
and fonr (laughter-., Thomas, John or Jonathan, Hannah, Mary,
Sidney, .Martha and Elizabeth. The father appears to have died
in 1721, but it is not definitely known. His will was executed
Jail. 29, 1719, and was probated at Philadelphia, May 17, 1721.
By the provisions of his will he leaves to his eldest son, Thomas,
all the home plantation after the death or second marriage of his
widow; to his son John, two hundred and fifty acres near the
"Great Valley" (Chester Valley); to his son Jonathan, two hun-
dred and fifty acres in the same locality; to his two eldest daugh-
ters, Hannah and Mary, lot in High street, Philadelphia — 60x300
feet — to be equally divided; to his three youngest daughters, Sid-
ney, Martha and Elizabeth, four hundred acres near the Great
Valley, or "in the great meadows," to be equally divided, with
power to sell at eighteen or marriage. He made his brothers-in-
law, Edward Jones and Daniel Humphreys, his trustees, and in
case of their decease, John Cadwalader and Jonathan Jones. His
wife Sarah was made executrix. It would seem that the bulk of
Mr. Wynne's landed estate lay in Chester county, which was being
largely settled by Welsh colonists. In the records of that county,
we find that Jonathan Wynne, a non-resident, was assessed on one
thousand acres in Nantmel township, in 1720, and again, on the
same tract, the valuation was put on it of £30 to the same parly.
In the first assessment the name appears Gwynne, corrected to
"Wynne," showing that the two names are synonyms, the G being
left out in the English spelling, the pronunciation being the same.
Nothing is mentioned in his will of the Cedar Creek or Lewes
plantations, which descended to him from his father, and it seems
probable that he sold these properties and invested in the new and
booming territory of Chester county. As this district became in a
way the home of many descendants of the race in America, a de-
scription of the county might be appreciated.
Chester county is one of the three original counties established
by William Penn in 1682, and included at that time Delaware
county and all of the territory (except the small portion now in
Philadelphia county) southwest of the Schuylkill to the extreme
limits of the province. Lancaster was separated in 1729, Berks
(partly formed from Chester) in 1752 and Delaware in 17S9.
Length -*!7 miles, breadth 20 miles, area 738 square miles.
The county embraces every variety of soil and surface. The
northern part is rugged, the Welsh mountains, a sandstone chain
of considerable elevation, belonging to the lower secondary forma-
tion, forms the northwestern boundary. A wide belt of red shale
and sandstone and a considerable area of gneiss roek lies to the
south of the mountain, and to this succeeds the Xorth Valley hill.
The "Great Valley" of primitive limestone forms the most dis-
tinguishing feature of the county and constitutes one of its greatest
sources of wealth. This valley; which is generally two to three
miles wide, crosses the county a little north of the center in a south-
west and northeast direction. Tt is shut in on both sides by parallel
hills of moderate elevation, and from either of these the whole
width of the valley may he comprehended at a glance; presenting,
with its white cottages and broad, fertile, highly cultivated farms
and smiling villages, one of the most lovely scenes in the United
States. It must have received its name of "Great" in the earlier
days of the province, when the greater limestone valleys of the
Kitatinny and those among the mountains were unknown.
To the south of the valley lies extensive primitive formation
covering the whole southern section of the county, and forming a
gently undulating country with occasionally a few abrupt eleva-
The principal streams are the Brandywine, Elk creek and
Oetarara creek, running southwesterly, ami Pikerings creek. Val-
ley creek, French creek and Pidgeon creek, tributaries of the
Excellent roads cross the county in all directions, of which the
principal are the Lancaster turnpike, the Downington and Har-
risburg turnpike, the Strasburg road and the Chadsford road.
The early Welsh occupied the eastern part of the county.
Chester county received its name in the following manner:
When William Pcnn first arrived at Upland, now Old Chester,
turning around to his friend Pearson, one of his own society, who
had accompanied him in the ship Welcome, he said, "Providence
has brought us here safely. Thou hast been the companion of my
f\ ■ '■'■' ■ ' /
ft ' £ : . ■
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. . ' . •■-
perils. What wilt thou that I shall call this place ?" Pearson re-
plied, '"Chester, in remembrance of the city from which I came."
Penn also decreed that one comity should retain the name Chester
after the territory was broken up."
Chester county has some claims to consideration also oil account
of some of her eminent sons. Easttown township was the birth-
place and home of Gen. Anthony Wayne, of Revolutionary fame ;
Cedar Croft, in East Marlborough township, is still shown as the
home of Bayard Taylor, the great traveler and author, while
Benjamin West, one of America's greatest, artists, was born and
bred in Spring township. The battle of Brandywine was fought
in this county, and the memorable camp of Valley Forge lies
partly in Chester county.
Of the other children of Dr. Thomas Wynne, we have only a
limited amount of information. Mary, who was the eldest who
came to America, was married to Dr. Edward Jones in Wales
and came to America Aug. 10, 1681, with her husband and
children. Dr. Jones was born in 1645 and was considerably older
than his wife. In connection with John ap Thomas, he in com-
pany with seventeen others, bought five thousand acres about
Merlon. He kept only 312 acres for himself, however, near the
Liberty Lands of Philadelphia. A part of this land is included
in the present, limits of Fairmount Park, the buildings of the Cen-
tennial Exposition of 1^76 being placed on lands formerly owned
by the Wynne and Jones families. Both Dr. Jones and bis wife
were devoted members of the Friends Church, the latter being an
accepted minister of that denomination. Dr. Jones served in
the Provincial Assembly, and also as justice of the peace. lie
died in Merion, Dec. 26, 1737, and Mary, his wife, died July 20,
173S. Both were buried at Merion. Their children were:
1. Martha, born in Wales, married John Cadwalader.
2. Jonathan, born in Wales in 16S0, married Gainer Owen
April S, 1706.
3. Edward, born at Merion, who with bis younger brothers
inherited the original home estate.
4. Thomas, born at Merion, had issue.
5. Evan, born at Merion, married Mary Stephenson ; second
wife was daughter of Col. Matthews of Fort Albany, X. Y. He
was the father of Dr. John Jones, the physician to Gen. George
6. John, horn at Merion.
7. Elizabeth, h<>rn at Merion, married Pees Thomas, Jr.
Jonathan Jones, the eldest son of Dr. Edward and Mary
Wynne Jones, purchased of his wife's brother, Evan Owens, the
large estate upon which he afterwards built the famous mansion
called Wynnewood, and named it after his grandfather, lie lived
to he ninety years of age. The author in 11)05 paid a visit to this
old manorial residence, located northwest of Philadelphia, around
which has grown up the beautiful suburb of Wynnewood Manor.
The old house was built about 1720, and named after Jh - . Thomas
Wynne, the founder of the American branch of the Wynnes. It
was originally built of stone, hut about the time of the Centennial
Exposition in 1876 it was coated on the outside with "staff,"
really marring the beauty and venerable appearance of the his-
toric edifice. It still presents a handsome appearance, and is sur-
rounded with large and elaborate grounds. The present front of
the building is really the rear as designed by the architect, a change
of the highways having created this reversal of former conditions.
The estate has, however, passed out of the hands of the Jones
family quite recently, and is now owned by Messrs. Ed. and
Robert Toland and used by them as a summer home. Strange to
say, it is now known in the neighborhood as Penn's Cottage.
Evan, the fourth son of Mary Wynne Jones, was the father of
Dr. John Jones. It will be remembered how Dr. Thomas Wynne
acted as the physician to that grand old character, William Tenn,
founder of Pennsylvania, and his shipload of pestilence-stricken
companions on board the good ship AVelcome on her voyage to the
land of freedom. Tt is a remarkable coincidence that during that
other trying time in the history of America, when the grand old
Virginian, George Washington, was leading our armies through the
troublous seas of a successful revolution, that a lineal descendant
of Dr. Wynne should act as special physician to the "Eather of
His Country,'" yet such is the case — Dr. John Jones acting as
General Washington's personal physician during the campaigns
in Pennsylvania and Xew York.
T. B. DEEM. KNIGHTSTOWN. IND.
Martha, the eldest child of Mary Wynne Jones, was married to
John Cadwalader at Morion on Oct. 26, 1699. Mr. Cadwalader
was the son of Thomas Cadwalader of Merioneth, Wales. lie
was a highly respected citizen, and served in the Common Council
of Philadelphia continuously from November, 1718, to January,
17;!;i. lie died duly 24, 1734, and his wife followed him to the
grave April 16, 1747. The offspring of this union were Thomas,
Mary, Hannah and Rebecca. Thomas was bora in 1707, and was
apprenticed to his uncle, Dr. Evans Jones, who moved to Xew
York in 17i'7. Young - Thomas became a distinguished physi-
cian in the colony; was associated with Benjamin Franklin in es-
tablishing the Philadelphia Library; he presided at the great
"Tea Meeting" in the State House yard, in which the "Phila-
delphia Resolutions" were adopted, the language of which was
copied into the famous "Boston Resolutions" of a later date,
lie married Hannah Lambert in 1738, and had two sons, John
and Lambert. Both he and his two sons signed the "XonTmpor-
tation Article" which bound the people of the Colony not to buy
English-made goods till the wrongs of the people were righted.
He died in 177'.'. Mary, the eldest, daughter of Martha Cad-
waladcr, was married in 1731 to Judge Samuel Dickinson, and
became the mother of John Dickinson, the ablest lawyer of his
day in the Colony, and an officer of the militia at the outbreak of
the Revolution, and at which time he was a member of the
Colonial Assembly. Hannah, the next daughter, married Samuel
Morris, and the third daughter, Rebecca, married William Morris.
These brothers were relatives of Robert Morris, the financial
officer of the Confederated Colonies during the Revolution.
We append the following biographical sketch of Gen. John
Cadwaladcr, the eldest son of Dr. Thomas Cadwalader, before
John Cadwalader, soldier, was born in Philadelphia, Jan. 10,
1742. Although thirty-three years of age at the time of the out-
break of the Revolution, ami a very promising and able officer
thereafter, nothing seems to have been recorded regarding his early
life. It is known that, at the time of the battle of Lexington, he
was in command of a volunteer company in Philadelphia, which
was popularly known as the "Silk Stocking Company." This
would appear to have been an organization from among the elite
of the young men of the Quaker City, but there can be no doubt
that the company was well drilled and disciplined, as nearly all
of its members afterwards received commissions in the army.
Cadwalader was an active member of the committee of safety
until he was appointed colonel of one of the city battalions. Later,
he was commissioned a brigadier-g< neral under the State govern-
ment, and during the winter campaign of 1770-77 he commanded
the Pennsylvania troops. General Washington's determination to
cross the Delaware above the "Falls" with his main division on
the evening of Christinas, 1770, for the purpose of attacking
Trenton, included the simultaneous crossing of the river at lower
points by two smaller divisions of the army. One of these divis-
ions, under General Ewing, was to land at the ferry, below
Trenton, in order to prevent any movement of the British from
Trenton towards their posts at Bordentown and Burlington.
General Cadwalader was to make, if possible, an attack upon
Burlington, his orders from General Washington being: "If
you can do nothing real, at least create as great a diversion as
possible." The crossing of the Delaware on and through the ice
a few miles above Trenton has been celebrated in picture and
story. Washington accomplished the feat with great difficulty,
but below Trenton the floating iee rendered it impossible for the
other divisions to cross, so that a part of the British force in
Trenton succeeded in retreating in the direction of Bordentown,
and it was not until the 27th that General Cadwalader was able to
move his division across from Bristol to the Jersey side. The
strength of the British position at Trenton being much greater
than General Washington had supposed, and the British force
larger than his own, the commander-in-chief abandoned his posi-
tion to make the attack upon Princeton, which occurred Jan. 3,
1777. This was the first engagement in which General Cad-
walader took part. General Washington, writing shortly after-
wards to the PresideTit of Congress, described him as "a man of
ability, a good disciplinarian, firm in his principles, and of in-
trepid bravery." In 1777, the British army landed at Elkton,
Md., and it became necessary to organize and equip the militia
on the eastern shore. Washington accordingly sent General Cad-
walader there. The latter shortly afterwards joined the army
under Washington, taking part in the battle of Brandywine. He
I • •■"
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WYNNEWOOD PLACE. TEXAS
also served as a volunteer at the battle of Gennantown, and
during the winter was engaged in partisan service on the flanks
of the enemy. He was again in Maryland, engaged in recruiting
on the eastern shore. Early in the spring of 177S he wrote to
General Washington, stating his purpose to rejoin the army, and
received from Washington in reply the following: "We want
your aid exceedingly, and the public, perhaps at no time since
the beginning of the war, would be more benefited by your advice
and assistance than at the present moment, and throughout the
whole of this campaign, which must be important and critical."
Later, in regard to a special detachment of about. 400 Continental
troops, with some militia, who were to harass the rear of the
enemy, then moving through Xew Jersey toward New York,
Chief Justice Marshall said: "If General Cadwalader could be
prevailed upon to command them, he would be named by Wash-
ington for that service, as an officer in whom full confidence might
be placed." Cadwalader engaged in it with alacrity. By all of
this it would appear that General Cadwalader held rather a
peculiar relation toward Washington, and toward the existing
struggle; the fact being that he was a man of enormous fortune,
whom it was very desirable to engage in the service of the colonies,
and who appeal's to have had move of his own way when in the
service than any of the other officers. The conclusion of the
movement through Xew Jersey was the battle of Monmouth,
which was fought June 28, 1TTS, and in which General Cad-
walader was engaged.
It was at this time that the celebrated cabal was formed
against General Washington, known as "Conway's Cabal," from
Thomas, called the Count de Conway, an Irishman, who has the
evil repute of having been the leader of the conspiracy which
aimed to overthrow Washington and put General Gates in his
place. Cadwalader's feelings were strongly enlisted in behalf of
Washington, whose confidence and friendly regard he had uni-
formly enjoyed, and whose opposition to this cabal brought him
into a duel with General Conway. Authorities differ as to the
process by which this was reached. One story is that Cadwalader
challenged Conway on account of the latter's attacks upon the
commander-in-chief. Another, which seems more probable, is
that General Cadwalader's animadversions upon General Con-
way's behavior at the battle of Germantown caused the latter r<>
send a challenge. Whichever of these two statements may be the
correct one, the challenge passed and was accepted, and a duel
was fought near Philadelphia, July 2~2, 1778, in which Conway
was shot in the month and fell, severely wounded, and as it was
thought at the time, mortally, though he ultimately recovered and
left the country. His antagonist was unhurt. General Cad-
walader was never in the United States military service. When
not in the field with his command in the Pennsylvania line, he
acted in battle either as a volunteer or under specified orders for
particular service. This arrangement was of his own making, as
he was twice appointed by Congress a brigadier-general, and de-
clined the appointment. Subsequently General Cadwalader was
a member of the Legislative Assembly of Maryland. His daugh-
ter, Frances, married David Montague, afterward Lord Erskine,
and from her are descended the present Dukes of Portland and
the wife of Lord Archibald Campbell. After General Cadwala-
der's death, Thomas Paine, the great Revolutionary patriot, who
had been considered his enemy through life, wrote an epitaph, in
the form of a monumental inscription, for a Baltimore news-
paper, which ran as follows :
"iS MEMORY OF OKXKIiAL .71)11 X CADWALADER,
Who died February 10th, 1786,
At Shrewsbury, his seat in Kent county,
In the forty-fourth year of his age.
This amiable, worthy gentleman
Had served his country
In the character of a soldier and a statesman:
He took an active part, and had a principal
Share in the late Revolution;
And although he was zealous in the cause
Of American freedom,
His conduct was not marked with the
Least degree of malevolence or party spirit.
Those who honestly differed from him in opinion,
He always treated with singular tenderness.
In sociability and cheerfulness of temper,
Honesty, and goodness of heart,
Independence of spirit, and warmth of friendship,
He had no superior,
And few, very few, equals.
Never did any man die more lamented
By his friends and neighbors;
To his family and near relations
His death was a stroke still more severe."
! ' - .
MRS. SUSAN WYNNE AMOLD. FLORIDA
Lambert Cadwalader, the younger brother of Gen. John Cad-
walader, before mentioned, served in the Revolutionary army,
being lieutenant-colonel of the Third Pennsylvania Battalion,
Jan. 4, 1776. He was taken prisoner at Fort Washington when
that stronghold was besieged and captured by General Howe on
Xov. 16, 1776. However, while a prisoner, Congress promoted
him, December, 1776, to be colonel of the Fourth Pennsylvania,
to rank from Oct. 25, 1770. lie was finally released on parole
and was not exchanged, resigning his military position dan. 22,
17 7!'. We find that he was closely associated with General Wash-
ington, it appearing in our researches that on Jan. 21, 1790, he
dined with the President, and also again on April Sth, same year,
and that "he exercised with General Washington on horseback on
more than one occasion." He died Sept. 12, 1823.
Mr. Francis Howard Williams, president of the "Society of
the Welcome,'' composed of descendants of the passengers who
came to Penn's colony on that vessel in October, 1CS2, is himself
a descendant of Or. Thomas Wynne, and gives his genealogy as
Sir John Wynne — Sidney Gerard.
Peter Wynne —
Or. Thomas Wynne — Mary Bultall.
Mary Wynne — Dr. Edward Jones.
Elizabeth Jones — Rees Thomas, Jr.
Anna Thomas — Samuel Williams.
Thomas Williams — Isabella Howard.
Howard Williams — Ann Heacoek.
Joseph J. Williams — Martha Paul Shoemaker.
Francis Howard Williams — Martha P. Houston.
HAXXAII WYNNE was married Aug. 25, 1695, to Mr.
Daniel Humphreys, who was also a Welsh immigrant to
Pennsylvania. The Humphreys came from Llwvngwrill, and
their genealogy dates back to 1400. Daniel was the son of
Samuel Humphrey and Elizabeth Pecs, or Rhys, both being
among the oldest and most respectable families in Wales. Mr.
Humphreys became one of the largest landowners in Pennsyl-
vania, the old maps showing his real estate in numerous parts of
the Colony. Daniel and Hannah resided near Merion, in Mont-
gomery county, and had numerous children, must of whom lived to
maturity. Their offspring comprised:
Samuel, horn 6-3-1696; Thomas, b. 4-20-1697; Jonathan, b.
7-9-1698; Hannah, b. 11-7-1699; Benjamin, b. 11-7-1701; Eliza-
beth, b. 8-16-1703; Mary, b. 12-10-1704; Solomon, b. 10-16-1706;
Joshua, b. 1-10-1708; Edward, b. 12-28-1709; Martha, b. 9-9-
1711 ; Charles, b. 7-19-1714; Rehecca, b. 10-2-1716.
Among the later descendants of this worthy couple may be
mentioned Joshua Humphrey, often called the "Father of the
American Navy," and General Humphrey of Revolutionary fame.
Also Jacob Humphrey, captain Gth Penn. Feb. 15, 1777, trans-
ferred to 1st Pcnn. 1783, and served to June, 17S3. We find also
John Humphrey, ensign of Lee's Light Dragoons, Aug. 2, 1770;
transferred to Cth Penn. Aug. 25. 1770; transferred to 2nd Pcnn.
Jan. 17, 1781; 2nd Lieut. 4th Continental Artillery Ap. 2, 17S2.
Served to June 17, 1783.
Charles Humphrey, son of Daniel and Hannah, was a member
of the Provincial Assembly 1763-1774; and was one of seven
deputies to attend the first Inter-Colonial Congress, which adopted
"First Bill of Rights." He was also a number of First Colonial
Congress in 1775. He was born in the famous Mansion House
on Cobhs' creek, near Haverford Meeting House.
One of the Humphreys, in conjunction with his cousin, Dick-
inson, were members of the committee of the Pennsylvania
House of Delegates at the time of the question of the adop-
tion of the Constitution of the United States, and both
voted against it because of the implied license of slavery in the
instrument. As Pennsylvania's assent was an absolute necessity
to the adoption of the Constitution, and as there were only five
members of the committee having the matter in reference, it will
be seen upon what slender threads momentous issues hang.
Daniel Humphrey came to America from Merionethshire,
Wales, about the same time as William Penn arrived. He was
accompanied by his mother, Elizabeth Humphrey, and brother,
Benjamin, and sisters, Anna and Gabitha.
MRS. ELIZABETH WYNNE FRENCH AND HUSBAND
The following genealogy is taken from Browning's "Americans
of Royal Descent":
Daniel Humphrey married Martha Wynne, and had 1, Charles
Humphrey of "Mansion House," member of Provincial Assem-
bly 1761-74, and Continental Congress 1774-7C, and voted against
the Declaration of Independence; 2, Dr. Edward Humphrey, who
married Eliz. Hays; 3, Samuel Humphreys; 4, Joshua Hum-
phrey, who married Sarah William; 5, Joshua Humphreys, naval
constructor and master shipbuilder to the government. He mar-
ried Mary Davis, and had 1, Clement Humphrey; 2, Sarah Hum-
phrey, married Henry Hollingsworth and had Hannah, who mar-
ried Dr. Thomas Stewardson, Mary who married Dr. James Car-
son, Rebecca who married Gen. A. E. Humphrey; 3, Chas. Hum-
phrey, who married Lowry Price ; 4, Elizabeth ; 5, Ann ; 6,
Joshua; 7, Ann; S, Rebecca; 9, Martha; 10, Margaret; 11, Sam-
uel Humphrey of Philadelphia, chief naval constructor to govern-
ment 182G-46, who married Letitia Atkinson, and had: 1, Clem-
ent; 2, Gen. A. E. Humphrey, U. S. A., and married Rebecca
Hollings and had Capt Henry Humphrey, U. S. A. ; Lieut.
Charles Humphrey 1866, and Rebecca Letitia; 3, Lieut. Joshua
Humphrey, U. S. N. and C. S. V. ; 4, Jane Humphrey, who mar-
ried Capt. McCabe, U. S. A.; 5, Catherine; 6, Mary, who mar-
ried George Yonge of Augusta, Ga., and had Letitia, who married
J. C. AVrenchall, Pittsburg, Samuel Yonge, Kansas City, and
William Wadlcy Yonge of Chattanooga ; 7, William Penn Hum-
phrey, U. S. N\, San Erancisco.
The following genealogy shows the Vans, residents of Phila-
Dr. Thomas Wynne.
1. Hannah Wynne, afterwards Humphreys.
2. Martha Humphreys, afterwards Paschall.
3. Hannah Paschall, afterwards Hollingsworth.
4. Mary Hollingsworth, afterwards Morris.
5. Levi Morris.
6. Sarah H. Morris, afterwards married to Mr. George Vaux.
7. Mary M. Vaux, George Vaux, Jr., William S. Vaux, Jr.
REBECCA W'YXNK was born in 1G62. She married first
- Mr. Solomon Thomas, an esteemed Welsh Friend, in March,
16S5, at Tliinlliavcn Meeting, Talbot comity, Md. He lived for
only a few years thereafter, and died without issue. Relwcca
married on the 2:Jd of July, IGU2, Mr. John Dickinson, of Talbot
county, Md., the ceremony taking place at Ids house. He was the
son of Walter Dickinson, of Crosia-dore, and an uncle of Sam-
uel Dickinson, who married Mary Cadwalader, the daughter of
John Cadwalader and Martha Jones (the latter a granddaughter
of Dr. Thomas Wynne. But little more is known of the genealogy
of this branch, the Maryland records being not well kept.
It is reported that Dr. Thomas Wynne had a daughter by his
second wife, Margery Maud, and that this child is the ancestor
of the Fisher ami Gilpin families. However, no mention of her
is made in the doctor's will, and we are inclined to the hclief that
she was probably a step-daughter.
SIDNEY WYNNK married William Chew on October 20,
1C> ( .Il!, at the house of William Richardson, in Anna Arundel
county, Maryland. Mr. Chew was the son of Samuel and Ann
Chew of that county. Col. Samuel Chew was in KiTG chancellor
and secretary of the proprietor, Lord Baltimore. The author has
not been able to trace this family more fully, largely for the same
reasons as stated about the Dickinsons.
'\ / ~pHOMAS WYNNE, of Blockley, the eldesl son of Jonathan,
-*- the son of Dr. Thomas Wynne, inherited Wynnestaye from
his father, lie married Mary Warner, daughter of Isaac Warner
of Blockley, the wedding occurring at the Friends' Meeting at
Philadelphia. Oct. 28, 17i-J. lie died in 1751; afterwards his
■ ■ ■_^_- '
c^ i. ■_
ISAAC WYNNE AND FAMILY. CRAWFORD CO.. OHIO
widow married James done.-, no children resulting from the second
marriage. Mr. Wynne's estate was appraised by Robert Roberts
and David George at £195. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Wynne
were: ~ , ',<-
1. Ann, born Dec. 2, 1724; she married Phineas Roberts, a
descendant of a Welsh family, in 1743, and they had, among other
children, Hannah Roberts, born 1717, who married Lieut. Abra-
ham Streeper in 1768, and had Mary Streeper, born Oct. 28,
1770, who married Titus Vcrkcs, and had Mary Paul Yerkes,
born June 12, lbl4, who married Joel Cook 2nd and had Gus-
tavus Benson Cook, bom July 18, 183S, and had Joel Cook 3d,
born March 20, 1S42, married Mary E. Edmunds, and had Rich-
ard Yerkes Cook, born Feb. 25, 1S45; William Cook, born July
IS, 1S4S, married Mary Earle. Richard Yerkes Cook married
Lavina Borden and had one son, Gustavus Wynne Cook, born
Dec. 12, 18GS, who married Xancy Mumford Bright of Williams-
burg, Ya., and had Xancy Wynne Cook and Lavina Emly Cook.
2. Lydia, born Jan. 12, 1720, married Jonathan Edwards
in 174 G.
4. Sarah, born Dec. 27, 172S.
5. Thomas, born Sept. 13, 1730, died in infancy.
(J. Thomas, born Xov. 21, 1733, of whom presently.
7. Isaac, bom July 2, 1737.
S. Deborah, bora Oct. 18, 1741.
9. Mary, born July 24, 1714.
Thomas, the son of Thomas and Mary Wynne, bom Xov. 21,
1733, married Margaret Colton, on Jan. 27, 1757, and two chil-
dren were born to them : Thomas and Phebe.
1. Phebe, married John Adams, and they resided at Wynnc-
staye, where Mr. Adams conducted a snuff mill for several years.
They had an only son, John Adams, who married Rachel Bohr-
man and continued to reside in Blockley. They also had two
daughter-: .Phebe, who married James Steel, and Margaret,
who married John Davis.
2. Thomas was born in 1702 ; he married Elizabeth Bees,
and they inherited Wynnestaye from Mr. Wynne's father. Dur-
ing the Revolution Mr. Wynne joined the American army and was
made a lieutenant in what was denominated the Flying Camp,
being probably li^lir nnnctl troops designed for scouting and
skirmishing. While in this service, under the command of his
cousin, Col. Lamberl C'adwalader, lie was captured by the British
at Fort Washington and kept a prisoner for a long time in New
York. He was afterwards paroled, but was never exchanged.
During bis absence, Wynnestaye was besieged by a British ma-
rauding parly from Philadelphia, but .Mrs. Wynne, aided by her
domestic and farm hand-, made a successful resistance until the
round of the tiring brought relief from the American forces. .\fr.
Wynne died at Wynnestaye at the age of eighty-three years. This
couple had nine children, to-wit :
Margaret, who married John Dungan.
Thomas, who married Hannah Sharpe.
Phebo, who married Owen Jones.
Ruth, who married Leonard Knight.
Elizabeth, who married William Rose.
Ann, who married William Davey.
Samuel, of whom presently.
Susanna, born March 2S, 1 s04 ; married Jacob Duffield. She
died July 23, 1844.
Polly, who died aged IS years and 2."> days.
We were unable to trace the families of any of these children,
except Samuel, who was born in 1795. lie married Phehe
Sharpe, who was horn Aug. 31, 1795, and died June 13, 1871.
Their children were :
Elizabeth, horn .March 23, 1817, died Jan. 8, ]sr>2. She mar-
ried William McDonald; had issui — two daughters and one son.
Sarah, horn Jan. IS, 1819, died Aug. 8, 1819.
.Mary, horn Dec. 27, 1820, died Sept. S, 1896. She married
Daniel Ilagv ; had issue — four daughters and six sons.
Joseph Sharpe, of whom presently.
Anna B., horn Dec. 21, 1S23 ; died .March 21, lSOfi; unmar-
Keziah C, horn Feb. 8, 1S26; died July 20, 1905; she married
Evan Jones; had issiu — two daughters and four sons.
Samuel, born Jan. :!, 1828; died March 24, 18 ( .t.">; he married
Annie Litzenberg; bad issue — three daughters and five sons.
Phebe, horn Sept. 20, 1S29; died Jan. 15, 1901; unmarried.
THOMAS AND NANCY WYNNE. TOLEDO. OHIO
William G., bom Nov. 3, 1831; died Sept. 3, 1904; he married
Maria Cooper; had issue — three daughters and one son.
Susan D., born Feb. 27, 1S33, died May 30, 1905; she married
first, Clias. B. Thomas; second, George Smith; had issue — two
sons by Thomas and two sons by Smith.
Margaret D-, born Feb. 13, 1837; married Charles H. Car-
penter ; no issue.
Joseph Sharpe Wynne, the son of Samuel and Phebe (Sharpe)
Wynne, was born May 20, 1822, and died July 16, 1S97. He
married Elizabeth X. Matlock, and they had issue as follows:
Thomas, of whom presently.
William W., born March 7, 1851; married first, Mary Steel,
and had issue — two daughters and one son; married second, Eliza-
beth Steel (sister of first wife), and had issue — two daughters
and two sons.
Lizzie X., born Jan. 7, 1S53; died Doc. 20, 18S2; she married
Lineaus A. Prince, and had issue — two daughters and two sons.
Emily X., born May 19, 1S55; married Robert K. Pearce, and
had issue — three daughters and one son.
Phebe M., born Jan. 25, 1857; died Sept. 1, 185S.
Charles C, born Feb. 11, 1S59 ; married first, Nellie Campbell,
had issue — one daughter and one son ; second wife, Eebecca Mac-
Donald, no issue.
Mary II., born Oct. 4, 1SG1 ; died Dec. 4, 1864.
Mary, bora May, 1SG5: died 1871.
Thomas Wynne, the eldest son of Joseph and Elizabeth (Mat-
lock) Wynne, was born Sept. 1, 1S49; he married first, Sarah L.
Miller, and had issue — one son. He married second, Elizabeth
(Bessie) Maclean, and had issue — one son and one daughter.
Mr. Wynne has been for many years librarian of the George In-
stitute Library, 5100 Lancaster avenue, Philadelphia, and is a
skilled genealogist. The author acknowledges great obligations
to him for favors conferred. His children, above mentioned, are
as follows :
Clarence P. Wynne, born Oct. 13, 1S76 ; president of the real
estate company of Wynne, Prince & Co., 719 Walnut street,
Philadelphia. The vice-president, Joseph W. Prince, is a cousin.
Helen, bom Jan. 29, 1893.
Thomas Elliott, born March 29, 1S96.
John Wynne, the second son of Jonathan and Sarah (Greaves)
Wynne, inherited from his father 250 acres in the Chester Valley
(now Nantmel township, Chester county). It seems, however,
thai he never resided there, but, mi the other hand, settled in Ger-
mantown, Pa., near Philadelphia, lie married Anne, daughter
of Henry and Sarah ( Boucher) Pastorius; her grandparents were
Daniel and Frances Pastorius. Mr. Wynne died in 17ST.
His children were: Pastorious, Isaac, Sarah, Mary and Ann.
The youngest daughter married a Mr. Hutton. One of the streets
in (lerniantown was named Wynne street in honor of the elder
John Wynne; it was later renamed Duncannon street. Sarah
married a ^Ir. Hall, and had two sons, Joseph and John Hall.
Pastorious Wynne, the eldest son of John, died in ITs'.t. We have
been unable to trace the descent of this branch any further.
The brother of Dr. Thomas Wynne evidently had a son named
James R. Wynne. In support of this theory we eite a provision
in the will of Thomas Wynne, grandson of Dr. Wynne, bequeath-
ing to his cousin, James Wynne, a horse. As this will was pro-
bated Xov. 23, 1751, it does not appear that the gift was made to
his brother Jonathan's son, James, who was not horn till 1736,
and would have been a nephew instead of cousin. We have also
been apprised that a descendant of Dr. Wynne's brother was
killed by Indians in Virginia.
George Cadwalader, of Philadelphia, descendant of Dr. Thomas
Wynne, still owns rlie famous dueling pistols which were used at
the hostile meeting between his ancestor, Gen. John Cadwalader,
and Gen. Counl Conway during the Revolution.
At Great Valley Baptist Church, Chester county, Pa., is re-
corded on Dec. 14, 1S15, the marriage of William Wynne to
WELCOME SOCIETY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
ON TDK 5th day of October, 1906, a number of the descend-
ants of the passengers who immigrated to America with
William Penn on board the ship Welcome formed the above named
society for the purpose of collecting and preserving historic data
relative to the settlement of Pennsylvania and the founding of
MR. AND MRS. E. S WYNNE. TOLEDO, OHIO
Philadelphia, and for social purposes. The membership is limited
to one hundred. Below are given the names of the members who
derive their eligibility to membership through descent from Dr.
Thomas Wynne, although there are some hundreds now living in
Philadelphia who are of Wynne descent:
Richard M. Cadwalader. Henry D. Rogers.
Dr. Chas. E. Cadwalader. Rodney Wister.
Richard Y. Cook. Alexander W. Wister.
Sydney George Fisher. Jones Wister.
Ellicott Fisher. Miss Hannah Ann Zell.
Thomas H. Shoemaker. Mrs. Mary Williams de Marie
Francis Howard Williams. Mrs. Hannah P. Richardson.
Churchill Williams. Mrs. Mary Williams Shoe-
Aubrey Howard Williams. maker.
The society's officers are: Francis Howard Williams, presi-
dent; Rodman Wister, vice-president ; Aubrey Howard Williams,
secretary; Ellicott Fisher, treasurer; George Cuthbert Gillespie,
registrar. Council — Richard McCall Cadwalader, John B. Cala-
han, Jr., Charles Gobrecbt Darrach, Sidney George Fisher, Har-
rold F. Gillingham, John Story Jenks, Fisher Corlies Morgan,
Thomas II. Shoemaker, Alexander W. Wister.
THE SECOND JONATHAN WYNN.
JONATHAN, son of Jonathan Wynn of Blockley township, re-
ceived for his portion, two hundred and fifty acres of land in
what is now Nantmel township, Chester county, Pa. His
brother John received a like amount of land in the same place,
and his three younger sisters inherited four hundred acres in the
same locality. They seem to have retained it jointly, no account,
of a division of it being found. It came to be known as the
"Wynn Tract," and was most desirably situated, comprising about
the best body of land in the township. It does not appear that
any of the heirs lived thereon, or did anything to improve it.
After they had paid faxes for several years without receiving any
income of importance, it seems that the county authorities decided
to raise the rates on all lands in the county uniformly "a pepper
an acre," this being flic popular way of designating it. In reality
the increase was to the extent of the value of one pound of pepper
to the acre. The value of pepper in those times is not given, but
it must have been considerable, inasmuch as all imported goods
which were brought to the colonies were high-priced, and were
in fact luxuries. Rather than pay the amount demanded the
Wynnes gave back the land to the public. It is now a highly
cultivated tract and of the average value of $150 per acre.
The young Jonathan, anyhow, did afterwards come to Chester
county with his wife, Ann, to whom he was married on the lGth
of June, 1730, and a large family blessed this union. The
author could not learn just what part of the county he resided in,
nor where he and his wife were buried. Jonathan died April 17,
1788, and his wife died March !), 1786. Following are the births
of their children:
Samuel Wynn, born Aug. 22, 1 T -' J 1 ; Mary, born Nov. 19, 1733 ;
James, born March 28, 173G; Esther, born Jan. 2S, 1738; Isaac,
horn Aug. 24, 1741; Hannah, horn Feb. 25, 1741; Warner, born
Jan. 28, 1747; Jonathan, born Oct. 28, 174!); Thomas, born Oct.
27, 1750; Jane, bom Jan. 10. 17.">4; Elizabeth, born Oct. 23,
1755. Concerning the after life of these children wc have been
able to gather the following data: Isaac, Thomas, Warner and
Jane emigrated to Fayette county. Fa., and more of them will
Hannah married Joseph Millard, who was horn Xov. 11, 1743.
The Millards came from Scotland, and were originally Scotch-
Irish in race. They are among the best people of Chester county,
whore the family first located. They became identified with the
Wynnes through the marriage of Joseph Millard with Hannah
Wynne, the daughter of the second Jonathan Wynne who lived
in America. She was first married to a Mr. Hughes, who died,
and she afterwards married Mr. Millard. She died Xov. 11,
1820, age eighty-three years. By the last marriage were born
Jonathan Millard, on Feb. 1!), 17S3, and Thomas, the date of
whose birth is nut given. Jonathan, who was named for his ma-
ternal grandfather, married Sarah Harvuat, who was born July
7, 1770. They had a son, Thomas Millard, who still lives on the
' ' "'N
> - . -
— ~ .~~ —
JOHN WYNNE AND FAMILY. PARIS. ILL.
old farm near Good Will Church, arid who was born Aug. 14,
1S1G. This latter Thomas had three sons, Jonathan, James and
Howard; of these children Jonathan lives on the home farm,
James died in 1860, and Howard lives in Loag's Corner, same
township. The father, Thomas Millard, then in his ninetieth
year, the author found still in good health, although partially
paralyzed in his right hand. He was for many years a surveyor
of the county, and is thoroughly posted in the affairs of the
country. He informed the author that the Millards are related
to the family of John ap John, a distinguished Welsh Quaker
minister, who was associated with Dr. Thomas Wynne in the
original purchase of the Welsh Tract from William Penn.
Rev. Thomas Millard, the second son of Hannah Wynn Mil-
lard, had, among other issue, a daughter Phehe, who married a
Mr. Baer, and their daughter, Emma, married Isaac Wynn of
Crawford county, Ohio. Another daughter of Phebe Baer was
Hannah, born 1800, who first married Israel Irvin and afterwards
Elizabeth Wynn, the youngest daughter of Jonathan Wynn,
married David Roberts, who was born March 23, 1755. They
had two daughters, Mary, born Dec. 12, 1778, and Ann, horn
Jan. 13, 1781. Further details regarding her descendants we
have been unable to obtain.
An account of Jane Wynn, who married William Xixon, will
be found under the head of "Fayette County Wynns."
Samuel, the eldest son of Jonathan Wynne, was born Aug. 22,
1731, hail three sons — James, John and David, and five daugh-
ters — Katie, Rebecca, Harriet, Annie and Mary. Of these chil-
dren: David — born in 1772 and died in 1S4S — had two sons,
James and Thomas. They lived in Easl Xantmel township,
Chester county. Pa. Thomas had two sons — Jonathan ami
Thomas; Jonathan's daughter was Charles Millard's mother.
James, another son of David Wynne, was born March 28, 1S3G;
he had seven sons and one daughter- — Jonathan, Isaac, David,
James, Thomas, Samuel and Emily. James, one of these suns,
married Elizabeth Buehwalter, and had issue — Leighton; Mary
Ann, who married John Rich Hoffman; Harry B., who married
Maria Ralston; Elizabeth, who married Edward E. Wood, of
U. S. A., a graduate of West Point, and now professor of modern
languages in that institution with the rank of colonel; James, who
married Debbie Rooke, and lias three children living — Emma,
Grace and Frank; Clara I!., who married Dr. William Morris
Rooke, has one child living— Edgar Leighton. .Mrs. Colonel
Wood is the only child of James Wynne now living.
Jonathan Wynn, horn Oct. IS, 17o7, and who lived to ho sev-
enty-two years old. lie was probably the .son of James, .son of
the second Jonathan Wynne. His wife was Margaret, horn Feb.
4, 1772, and died 1S0S. They had issue: Rebecca, horn Xov. 0,
1701 ; Elizabeth, horn Aug. 23, 1793; Thomas, April 14, 1798;
Isaac, horn July 27, 1800; Jonathan, horn April 1, 1S04; Mar-
garet, horn July 22, 1S07 ; Sarah Ann, horn March 22, 1811;
Hannah, horn Jan. 1, 1813; James Ross, horn April 27, 1S15 (he
died Oct. 10-23, 1864) ; Mary Ann, horn Xov. 30, 1816; Xaney,
born Feb. 5, 1818. The father afterwards married another wife,
named Sarah . (The above is taken from letter of Wallace-
ton (Pa.) Fire Brick Company, with W. ][. Wynn, Tr. ; S. G.
Wynn, Supt. ; D. R. Wynn, Sec.) The letter also says: Sarah
Wynn, wife of Jonathan Wynn, died July 11, 1S29. "Our grand-
father had four wives, only two on record. All his children except
Jonathan went West; Jonathan went to Blairsville, Indiana
county, Pa. James Ross Wynn married Mary Ann , who
died Dec. 31, 1SS7. They moved to Bolivar, Pa., where their
children wore horn, as follows: Jonathan, b. Oct. 23, 1 S 7 ;
George, July 27, 1S39; Elizabeth, May 16, 1S41; William 11.,
Mar. lit, 1S43; Alexander. Feb. 5, 1845; Louisa. Aug. 13, 1847;
John Peter. Jan. 1. 1850; James R., July 12, 1852; Emily M..
Aug. 28, 1855; Robert, Sept. 4. 1S57; Samuel Gilmore, Feb. 27,
1860; Sarah. Mar. 12, 1S62." John Peter Wynn, one of these
children, lived at 121 W. Main street, Lock Haven, Pa. He says:
"I have a nephew, Charles A. Wynn, at the Jefferson Medical
College." This in 1S96.
Isaac, another son of David Wynne, had a son, Isaac Xewton
Wynne, at present an attorney with offices at Westchester and
— i WW
SARAH WYNNE DEEM. KNIGHTSTOWN. INDIANA
Phenixvillc, Chester county, Pa. lie married Ella Bishop, and
they have two daughters and one son.
Samuel, another sou of .Tames Wynne, had a son, Thomas; also,
a son, Samuel, Jr., who had Alvin, Paul S., Samuel O., Harry X.
and Earl It.
David, still another son of David Wynne, Sr., had a daughter,
Hannah A., who married Silas Peimypacker <>f Marsh Farm.
About Mary and Esther, the remaining children of the elder
Jonathan Wynne of Marsh Farm, we are unable to give any in-
FAYETTE COUXTY (PA.) BRANCH.
'"TT^HREE brothers, Isaac, Warner and Thomas, sons of
-L Jonathan Wynn, of Chester county, Pa., some time after
the Revolution, moved west into the Alleghany mountains and
settled on George's creek, a tributary of the Youghiogheuy river,
in what was at that time Westmoreland county, but is now Fayette
county, Pa. They purchased lands contiguous to each other —
tracts of considerable size — and altogether they owned all the
district whereon the thriving industrial towns of Oliphant's Fur-
nace and Fairchance are now located.
ISAAC WVXX IJUAXCII.
The elder of these brothers, Isaac, seems to have been the
most prominent of the three, and left the most durable im-
press upon the history of the county. He was born in Chester
county, Pa., Aug. 24, 1741, and died in Fayette county. Pa., on
Oct. '.', 1807. His wife was named Mary; she died June 14,
1811. Mr. Wynn's will was probated in 1808. He left his
landed estate principally to his four sons, Isaac, Thomas, Warner
and Jonathan. Of the latter three very little record is to be
found outside the division of the estate; although tradition states
that. Thomas once killed a man at Uniontown in such apparent
self-defense that he was not even arrested. Besides his sons,
Isaac had three daughters: Hannah, who married Peter Corson;
they moved to McKeesport, Pa., where the husband amassed a
large fortune in the iron trade Their son, Capt. Benjamin Cor-
son, lives in Pittsburg, and has added largely to the family wealth.
Jle lias a beautiful summer home at Ohio Pyle, Pa., overlooking
the falls of the Youghioghcny, where the family come every year
for an outing.
Frances Wynn, the second daughter of Isaac, married Moses
Nixon, one of the pioneers of this section. He built the old
'•Nixon Mill-" before 1800— now called the Abel .Mills. lie also
owned a distillery, tin- ruins of which still remain. The moun-
taineers of the Alleghany district rebelled against the government
on account of a burdensome excise tax on spirits; alleging that on
account of the long distance to market, and the rough country to
he traveled over, they could not dispose of their grain crops prof-
itably unless allowed to deliver them in the most concentrated
form. .Mr. Nixon was a representative of this class, and while
there is no account of his having taken any part in the insurrection,
yet it is known that he signed a protest against the government's
action in the matter. He also kept the popular tavern of the com-
munity, "The Fox and Dogs," where the landed gentry gathered
in much the same fashion as is followed in the country clubs of
the present day. lie was also a justice in the county court. The
family were prominent in the settlement, ami have left numerous
descendants, many of whom still live in the county.
Isaac Wynn, the remaining son of Isaac, St., was married to
Dorcas Nixon, probably a sister of his brother-in-law, Moses
Nixon. But little authentic record is to he found concerning him.
It is known that his wife died May 1, 1S72, aged ninety-two years,
which would make the year of her birth 17S0. < She was Walter
and Rose Laughead's great-grandmother.) This couple were
blessed with issue, as follows:
Mary, who married William Sutton; had Eliza, Joseph, Estep
Isaac, of whom presently.
Jane, who married William Vance and moved to Hillsboro, O.
They had eight children, including, among others, Eliza, Isaac,
Beeson and Cynderella.
Clarinda, who married Hugh AVhite and moved to Dungall,
Pa. They had one child. Isaac.
Isaac Wynn, the third of the name, was born April 9, 1S13,
and his father's estate being divided, he inherited the homestead.
GRAVE OF MRS. UNA WYNNE, EDGAR CO.. ILL.
On Oct. 3, 1S34, he married Hannah Iliatt, who was born June
20, 1S1T. Mr. Wynn was a Baptist minister, and quite promi-
nent in the church, lie owned a large tract of land, nearly two
miles in length, and comprising the present location of Fair-
chance. During his lifetime the first coke furnaces were opened
on his land, and they are to this day known as the Wynn furnaces,
though now merged in the plants of the Frick Coal and Coke Com-
pany. Mr. and Mrs. Wynn had the following named children:
Sarah, born Sept. "7, lb35; Bryson, born Feb. 7, 1S3S, and
Serena, born March 12, 1S40. Sarah and Bryson are single and
live on part of the old farm. Serena married a Mr. Laughead, ^
and they had two children: Walter Wynn and Bose Eva. The <■ ,' \
latter is single, and she and her mother live on their farm, pur-
chased of the Hadens, in the outskirts of Oliphant Furnace. The
son, Walter Wynn Laughead, is married and has a daughter, Cor-
delia, born Jan. 1G, 1S93, and Frank, born Sept. 23, 1894. The
family own the old home of the Wynus.
Sarah Ann Wynn, daughter of the second Isaac, was born
Sept. 9, 1820, and lives with her son, Isaac, about four miles from
Ohio Fyle, Ba., at the falls of the Youghiogheny river. She was
married to James B. Mitchell on Sept. 28, 1S41. He was born
Oct. 22, 1813, and died Xov. 28, 1875. To this worthy couple
were born eight children : Milton S., bom Aug. 24, IS 12 ; Dorcas,
born Oct. 1, 1844, single; Mary Jane, born Dec. 19, 1846, mar-
ried Thomas Harden, and removed to Mt. Aver, Iowa, and their
children are Frank, Harry, Walter, Mabel and Edith. Sabina
was born Sept. 30, 1S49; married Taylor Markley, who is now
dead; their children are Xellie and Blanch; Xellic married
William Eittenhour and has child, Eugene. Serena, born Aug.
21, 1S52, married Hiram Bailey of Ohio Byle, and had James,
an only child ; he is married and lives at Omaha, Xeb. Isaac
Wynn was born Jan. 21, 1S55, married Mary A. Bush; have no
children. They occupy the old Mitchell homestead. Clarinda
was tarn March 16, 185S, and married Thomas McFarland ; they
live at McKeesport, Ba., and have a daughter Grace and son
Edward — Grace is the wife of a Mr. Clark and lives near Bitts-
burg; they have a daughter. Emma Mitchell was born Dec. 9,
1861; single; now dead. Arthur B., a grandson of Sarah Ann
Mitchell, was born April 26, 1868; he married May Leslie and
they had five children: Clyde, Bryan, Donald, Brown and Paul.
The husband is dead, and the family live at Ohio Pyle.
WAKNEK WYNNE BRANCH.
Of the second brother, Warner Wynne, who came from Chester
county to Fayette county, Pa., not a great deal is known. He was
a Revolutionary soldier, enlisted in what was known as the Flying
Camp id' volunteers. lie was under the command of his cousin,
Col. Lambert Cadwalader, and probably in the same company as
his other cousin, Lieut. Thomas Wynne. While engaged in the
campaign around New York City his command was a part of the
garrison of Foil Washington.
Old Fort Washington was located on the highest eminence on
Manhattan island, between what are now lSlst and lS6th streets
of Xew York City, and about eleven miles from City Hall. It
was a strong earthwork of irregular form, covering with its
ravelins several acres. About twenty heavy cannons and some
lighter piccts comprised its armament. The contour of the fort's
embankments are still visible. In October, 1776, after General
Howe had driven the Americans out of Xew York City, his forces
followed Washington's army up the island, and at White Plains
the latter were again defeated. Upon the advice of General
Greene, and against his own sober judgment, General Washington
left a'garrison of 3,000 men under General Magaw in Ft. Wash-
ington with instructions to hold it against, both water or land
attacks. About the 15th of November the British invested the
fort with an army of S,000 men, and on the 16th made a general
attack. Colonel Cadwaladcr's troops in the garrison wire sta-
tioned on the south side and manned the lines outside the fort
proper in the direction of Xew York. He had only l.">0 men with
one eighteen-pounder. Lord Percey's troops, which attacked him,
were repulsed, and. yielding, moved toward the left However,
other British regiments under .Matthews and Stirling crossed the
Harlem river and threatened to cut him off from the fort, where-
upon Cadwalader retired along the road nearest the Hudson,
closely followed by Percy, and battling all the way. When near
the upper border of Trinity Cemetery (l.">lst street) he was at-
tacked in flanks by Colonel Stirling, who was pressing across the
island to intercept him. At this time Generals Washington, Put-
RESIDENCE OF SARAH WYNNE DEEM. KNIGHTSTOWN. IND.
nam, Greene and fiercer had crossed from the Xew Jersey side to
view the situation, and were at Morris House, and would un-
doubtedly have been captured hut for the stubborn resistance of
Colonel Cadwalader and his company of brave Pennsylvanians.
Beaten hack by overwhelming forces, the gallant hand continued
to retreat, and reached the fort after losing nearly half the men
in killed and wounded. On the holder of the cemetery and near
the fort, severe skirmishing took place, and many of the British
pursuers wire slain. But further resistance being in vain, General
Magavr surrendered the fort. The garrison were taken to Xew
York and imprisoned until near the close of the war. Warner
Wynne finally made his escape and walked all the way back bare-
foot to his home in Chester county, Pa.
After the war Warner Wynne moved west to Fayette county
with his brothers. His wife's name was Mary; she died in 1S0S.
He bought lands adjoining the lands of his brothers, the old deeds
using his lands to partly describe the other tracts. It is presumed
that one of his daughters married a Mr. Hughes and was the an-
cestor of Isaac and Owen Hughes of Fairchance. They have some
old deeds to his property, and Owen Hughes has some old Bible
records bearing on the subject.
Some time after the three brothers came west, one of their
sisters also emigrated to Fayette county. Jane Wynn married
William Nixon, a brother of Moses, and likewise left a large
circle of descendants. Jane was born Jan. 1G, 1754, and died
Dec. 27, 1831, age seventy-seven years. They were the parents
of the following children: Allen, born Aug. 12, 1772; Moses,
Jan. 19, 1774; John, Feb. 20, 1776; William, Nov. 15, 1778;
Dorcas, Sept. 30, 1780; George, Dec. 15, 1782; Jacob, Sept. 20,
1785; Samuel, May 0, 1789; Elizabeth, March 19, 1705; Isaac,
June 10, 1707; Fanny, Xov. 25. 1799; William, Oct. 20, 1S02 ;
Mary, April 23, 1805. It is probable that the first son named
William died young; hence the second one of the name. The cus-
tom was common in early days. The only one of the children of
whom we found a record was Samuel Xixon, who married Hannah
■ , and they had the following children: Jane, horn Feb. 23,
1813; Keziah, Feb. 16, 1S15; Dorcas, Sept. 7, 1816; Eliza, Aug.
20, 1818; Mary Ann, duly 24, 1820; William D., Oct. 5, 1S22;
Ayres. July 15. 1824; Sarah, Feb. 4, 1^27; James, Dec. 3, 1828.
The descendants of this familv arc verv numerous.
THE THOMAS WYXXE BRANCH OF PENNSYLVANIA
THE third son of Jonathan and Ann Wynne, who removed
to Fayette county, Pa., from the ancestral home in Chester
county, that State, was Thomas, who is the ancestor of the Indiana
and Illinois Wynnes. He was horn in 17.~>2, and when barely
twenty-one years old, lie took to himself a wife, Ann, whose sur-
name the author is unable t<> discover. She was horn Jan. 31,
1755. The young couple did as many another young couple has
done before ami since: They followed "the star of empire" on
its westward course, and found a land amid the valleys and moun-
tains which give birth to the great Monongahela river, in what
was then Westmoreland county, now Fayette, Pa., and here
they carved from the unbroken forest a home for themselves. In
the fullness of time a large family grew up around them, as is
attested by their old Bible records, and from which the following
birth notices are herein set forth:
CIIII.OKK.X OF THOMAS AM) ANN \VV.\S.
1. Benjamin Wynn, born Nov. 21, 1774.
2. Thomas Wynn, horn dan. 26, 1777.
'.',. Isaac Wynn, horn Feb. 2:1, 17S2.
4. Ann Wynn, horn Oct. 2'.), 17S5.
">. Jonathan Wynn, horn Oct. 1:5, 17*7.
6. Elizabeth Wynn. boru Mar. 27, 1790.
7. James Wynn, horn Alar. 16, 1702.
Soon after the birth of little .) nines, the faithful wife was taken
siek, and died on the 18th day of October, 1793, being laid to rest
in the little cemetery on the farm which she had done so much to
bring into being. The stricken father thus left desolate, with a
home full of little children and no one to look after the household
affairs, shortly afterwards married again. His second wife's
name was Letitia, and she was born Oct. 31, 1771, but her family
name is nowhere set forth. By this wife a numerous progeny was
added to the children above given, to-wit:
8. Rebekah Wynn, horn Mar. 1. 1795.
!». Samuel Wynn. born Oct. 29, 1796.
10. Mary Wynn, horn Nov. 4, 179S.
MRS. RACHEL WYNNE MOVER AND FAMILY. WEATHERFORD, TEXAS
11. John Wynn, born Nov. 19, 1S00.
12. Isaac Wynn, born April S, 1802.
13. Abraham Wynn, born July 17, 1804.
14. Susannah Wynn, born Jan. 11, 1S07.
15. Joseph Wynn, born May C, 1S09.
10. Here the record is torn so that the following only
remains: "June 21, 1S11, the Little B
and was buried June 29."
17. Anna Wynn, born Aug. 14, 1812.
On the 9th day of June, 1819, the father, Thomas Wynn, died
in the fullness of years, having fought the good fight, conquering
the wilderness, and making it to blossom as the rose. His wife,
Letitia, survived him for fifteen years, she dying on Nov. 30,
Concerning the future of a large number of the children whose
birth dates are above set forth, the author has not been able to
trace; neither can he tell how many reached the age of maturity,
and are themselves ancestors of families growing from this com-
mon stock. Mention elsewhere is made of the. lives of some of the
number. However, this chapter will deal more especially with
the career of the fifteenth child.
Joseph AVynn came west in 1829, or thereabouts, when a mere
lad, and settled in Fall Creek Valley, not far from the old town
of Alforit, in Madison county, Indiana, where he grew to man-
hood. He married Miriam about 1837. She was born
Oct. 12, 1820. The fruits of this marriage were two sons and
three daughters, as follows:
David Thomas Wynn, born Jan. 15, 1838.
Charles William Wynn, born Sept. 3, 1840.
Elizabeth Jane Wynn, born Jan. 2, 1S43.
Mary Ann Wynn, horn Jan. 27, 1S45.
Margaret Caroline Wynne, born Mar. 17, 1S4S.
Less than one month after giving birth to her last child the
mother, Miriam, sickened and died on the 10th of April, 184S,
in the twenty-eighth year of her life. She lies buried in the
Alfont Cemetery, near her home. On Jan. 29, 1849, Mr. Wynn
married Mary IT. Lvkins, who was born in Leaver county. Pa.,
on April 20, 1S22. Elder Daniel Franklin, one of the old leaders
of the Christian Church in Indiana, performed the ceremony in
the home of the bride. They continued to reside on the old farm
which Joseph had entered from the government. Tn the course of
time another family of children grew up around them, the names
and dates of birth of whom are appended:
Catherine L. Wynn, horn Jan. '.», 1852.
John M. Wynn, born July 28, 18.".:}.
Isaac R. Wynn, born Nov. 25, 1S54.
Gsojtge W. Wynn, born Dec. 10, 1861.
Addie L. Wynn, born Feb. 2, 186S.
Mr. Wynn was a hustling, busy man, and in the course of a
long life accumulated a splendid fortune, his home farm contain-
ing upwards <>f three hundred acres of as fine land as is to he
found anywhere in the United States. It lies about one-half mile
south of the old town of Alfont. and two miles north of the thriving
little city of Fortville, Hancock county, Ind. Mr. Wynn was a
leading- member of the Christian Church, and active in promoting
all moral and religious undertakings in his community. On the
13th day of December, 1S91, he was "called to his fathers." His
mortal remains now lie beside his first wife in Alfont Cemetery
within sight of the old homestead where he had so long lived and
wrought his Master's will, lie died in his eighty-third year.
Of the children of Joseph and Miriam Wynn most of them who
reached the years of maturity are still living in and around the
old homestead, which the author will name and describe as
Charles William Wynn, when the war id' the Great Rehellion
broke out, was just twenty-one years old. lie promptly took up
arms in defense of the unity of his country : enlisted in the Eighth
Indiana Volunteers, Colonel Benton; took part in twenty-four
battles and sii^cs, served in Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mis-
sissippi, Tennessee, Georgia, Kentucky and Virginia; was present
at the siege of Vickshurg, and formed part of General Sheridan's
command in the East, beginning with the battle of Cedar Creek.
where his commander made the famous ride so graphically de-
scribed by the pen of Buchanan Bea<L On Feb. 20, 1SG8, he
married Louisa Frasier, daughter of William and Elizabeth Fra-
sier, and tin 1 fruits of this union were: Cora Bell, horn Dec. 10,
186S; Thomas Edgar, horn .Ian. 20, 1STO; Myrtle May, horn
MRS. LINNIE WYNNE WATSON AND FAMILY. CHRISMAN. ILL.
April 17, 1874; Joseph William, born Dec. 2G, 1S7G; Frederick
Grant, born Nov. 13, 1SS2. Of these children, Eddie died March
2(5, 1^'.»4; Cora married Robert Beiler and lives in Alfont, Ind.
■ — they have no children; Myrtle married Herbert Alford, April
12, 1S91, and have three children; Mamie Inez, now fourteen
years old; Vera Gladys, ten years old, and Thelma, three years
David J. Wynne, the eldest son of Joseph Wynne, was born
Jan. !.">, 1S38. He was a soldier in defense of the Union in the
war of the Rebellion, anil soon after his return was married to
Miss Susan Rash. They had one child, and the wife died
in a few years, leaving Eme V., bom Oct. 5, 1SG6, who
married George Davis on Oct. 7, 1SSS, and to this couple were
born Fred Wynne, on Nov. 26, 1SS9, and Wilbur, on Xov. 23,
1S9!). On Dec. 24, 1S74, David Wynne was married to Miss
Florence Conger, who was born near Fortville on March 19, 1S4S.
To them were born three children :
1. Vernie L., born May 21, 1S7G; she married on Feb. 20,
1S94, R. A. Burris, and to them were born Mary, March 5, 1S95,
and Margaret, born Feb. 13, 1901.
2. Mary Wynne, born Oct. 15, 1SS0 ; unmarried. She is
agent of the I. TJ. Traction Company at Fortville.
3. Joseph R. Wynne, born Jan. 30, 1SS8.
George W. Wynn, who now lives on the old homestead of
Joseph Wynn — ''Wynnefield" — was the fourth child of Joseph
'and Mary Wynn. On March 4, 1SS2, he married Miss Rosa
Hiday, and to bless their union three children were born: P>essie,
born Dec. 15, 1SS3, died while young; Ilattie, born June 17,
1SS7, who married a Mr. Collins, June 29, 1902, and has a child
named Pauline; the third child of Mr. and Mrs. Wynn is Hazel,
who was born Xov. 27, 1SS9, still single and living at home.
Addie E. Wynn, the fifth child of Joseph and Mary Wynn,
married Walter Alford, and they live upon part of the old farm.
They have four children: Raymond, Mattie, Rena and John,
Catherine Eetitia Wynn, the eldest child of Joseph and Mary
Wynn. married Reuben R. Alfont, Xov. S, 1S74, and have
William, age twenty-four years, who is a lieutenant in the regular
army; Fanny, married to Othello Huston; Minnie, dead; Walter,
twenty years old ; Clarence, Ernest and Dallas, living', and three
Isaac K. Wvnn, the third son of Joseph and Mary, married
Marietta Alfont, Feb. 20, 1S7.">, and now resides in Brightwood,
Ind., a suburb » > t* Indianapolis. They have no children.
Mary, the widow of Joseph Wvnn, is still living with her chil-
dren, a hale, hearty and unusually well-preserved lady, in her
John M. Wvnn. the son of Joseph ami Mary, died while young.
Mary Ann Wynn, the second daughter of Joseph and Miriam
Wvnn, was born .Jan. 2!', 1845, and on Dec. 21, 1865, she married
George W. Ifert, who was born June i>, ls:57. They had two
children: Mary Ann, born Sept. IT, 1866, and Charles L., born
Aug. 22, 1868. Mary Ann married Wellington M. Wiseman on
Jan. 29, 1SS7, and had one son, Glenn F. Wiseman, born Aug. 21,
1890. Charles L. Ifert married Miss Ida Wells on Sept. 29,
1896, and they have one son, Paul S., who was horn Dec. 18,
189S. Mary Ann Ifert, the mother, died April 10, 1904.
Mary Wynne, the tenth child of Thomas and Letitia Wynne of
Fayette county, Pa., was born Xov. 4, 1798. She came west with
her brother Joseph and family, and was married to Henry Iliday
near Fortville, Ind., 'and the couple continued to reside there
during the remainder of their lives. They had eight children:
Nancy, John Henry, Thomas, Jacob, Joseph, Archibald, Eliza-
beth and Mary. These children in turn married ami have children,
so that this Hiday-Wynne branch of the family numbers a great
many, most of the individuals composing it still continuing to
reside near the old homestead. The old farm is owned by Thomas,
one of the first named children, who married Miss Jane Doty,
and has two children — Charles, who married Mattie Hunter, has
one daughter, Lora, who is the wife of a Mr. Bell. The latter
'couple have no children. Angeline, the second child of Thomas,
married John Cottrell, and they live on the old Iliday farm.
They have four children.
John Henry Iliday was horn April 17, 1S49, and married his
cousin, Margaret C, daughter of Joseph Wynne, and they live at
Fortville, 1ml. They were married Sept. 10, 1869, and have a
numerous progeny, to-wit :
y 114 ■
THE FIVE HIDAY BROTHERS (Soldiers). FOKTVILLE, IND.
1. John L., b. Dec. 29, 1S70, married Lydia Lindamood, and
have one child, Buren, age three years.
2. Arvil C, b. Oct. 22, 1S73, married Frances "White, and
have three boys — Arvil, S years ; Kyle, years, and Henry, 4
3. Ella K., b. Sept. 15, 1S75, married Thos. Keslcr; child,
Ruth, 2 years.
4. Miriam A., b. Jan. 30, 187S, married George Kesler; child,
John, 3 years.
5. Mary L., b. Xov. 7, 1SS0, married James Morris, two
children — Margaret, 3 years, and Mary, C months.
6. Lydia, b. Xov. 7, 1SS3 ; dead.
7. Dora, b. Sept. 11, 1887; dead.
Joseph Hiday married Miriam Shortridge and moved to Iowa;
they had three children — Archibald, Mary and Miriam. On the
death of his wife, he married again in that State, and had three
more children — Lizzie, "William and Thomas. Some years after-
wards he returned to Fortville, and in turn married Sarah Huston,
and Sarah Speers, but had no other children.
Jacob Hiday married Margaret Wallace, who soon died. He
then married Sarah Emery and they had three children — John,
Charles and Samantha. Afterwards he married Xancy Stans-
berry and had four children — Jesse, Hamilton, Emerson and
Archibald Hiday married Elizabeth Clark and had five chil-
dren, as follows :
1. Charles, who married Dora Wynne, and they have two chil-
dren — Laverne, four years, and Lavonne, two years.
2. Eanny, who married Jeremiah Gwynn, no children.
3. Sarah, who married William Ferrell, one child — Imel,
4. James, who is married ; has no children.
5. Tracy ; not married.
Elizabeth Hiday, the youngest child of Mary Wynnc-Hiday,
married John Skinner, and lives north of Fortville, on Fall creek.
They have two children: Hadvn, who is married but has no chil-
dren, and Charles, who married Lizzie Wiggins, and has two
Mary II i<lay married John Sherman and they now live in the
State of Washington. They have children.
Nancy Iliday was born Hay 22, 1821, and is the eldest child
of Mary WynneJIiday. On the 2Sth of Tune, 1840, she mar-
ried Samuel I!. Cottrell, who was horn Aug. !», 1821. They had
seven children: Margaret E., b. May 28, 1M1; Susan Jane, b.
Nov. 12, INI:.; Nancy M., h. Dec. 22, IMS; Charlotte A., b. Feb.
22, 1852; John 11.. b. Dec. 2. IS54; Thomas W., b. Oct. 2, 1858;
Amanda A., b. Dec 2, 1S60.
The five son- of Mary Wynne-IIiday enlisted in the Union
army, and served throughout the war of the Great Rebellion with
distinction. They all returned safe and sound, and are still living.
Of the other children of Thomas Wynne of Fayette county,
only incomplete records are known to exist. Of Jonathan and
Joseph the fullest accounts are given elsewhere. Samuel emigrated
to the "West, stopping for a while in Haneoefe county, Ind., and
then moving on to Illinois in 1850. Abraham came also to Han-
cock county, Ind., in 1850, and afterwards moved to Missouri.
Susannah came to Indiana and married Charles Doty. Anna,
the youngest child of Thomas Wynne, Sr., also came to Hancock
county, Ind., and married John Jarrett. The record of James
Wynn and family i- set forth elsewhere. Rebecca, the eldest
child of Thomas and Letitia Wynn, born 1705, was married to
a Mr. Abraham, and died Oct. 22. 1817.
The following lines were found on a small piece of paper by
Mrs. Serena Wynn Laughead while having her home at Oliphant
Furnace, Pa., remodeled in 1905. The paper hail been concealed
behind the mantel of the fireplace. The house had been the old
homestead of the Iladons, and the writing is that of the elder
Thomas Wynn, who moved West from Chester county. It seems
to be a safe conduct from one in authority:
"Tlios. Wynn's Compliments to John lladen:
''Sir: I should he glad to have you come and see me some con-
venient opportunity, either at night or on Sunday. If you are
doubtful of others you certainly are not of me. I will use every
means honestly to do you justice. I will not detain you on any
score or under any pretense whatever, but you shall he at liberty
to come and go when you please. Perhaps your compliance with
this may be of u-o to us both. From yr frd Thos. Wynn.''
"Uniontown, Pa., December, 1805."
JONATHAN WVNN III.
JONATHAN W'VXN, grandson of Jonathan Wynne of Block-
ley, bought in 1774 the farm knows as .Marsh Farm, located
along the Concstoga pike, in East Nanfniel township, Chester
county, Pa., consisting of 168 acres and 144 rods, lie made the
purchase of Thomas Penn, tile son, and John Peun, the grandson,
of William IVim, the founder of the Colony. The farmhouse
was partly of stone and partly of wood; it sets on an elevation
above the road, and in the side of a hill; a considerable portion of
the farm was lowland and swampy, but Mr. Wynne cut a large
ditch through this part, draining into Brandywine creek, the
waters of which flow past the battlefield of the famous Revolu-
tionary battle of Brandywine. lie also built a stone wall about
the house, which still remains. He married Miss Letitia Hewitt.
He had quite a huge family, comprising the following children:
Mary, Rachel, Ann, Jennie, Susan, Lettie, John and Jonathan.
Of these, Lettie and Jonathan died during their minority.
Rachel Wynn married Hugh Huston, and they shortly after-
wards moved to the neighborhood of Circlevillc. Ohio. Their
children were Eliza Ann, Susan, Mary Jane, Franklin and Martin
Luther. We have no trace of these children, except Eliza Ann,
who married a Mr. Austen and moved to Belton, Texas, where
her mother joined her after the death of her husband, Mr. Huston.
Rachel died in 1866, and lies buried in the cemetery at Belton.
All her children are dead at this date. Mrs. Austen had seven
children: Henry, Franklin. Martin Luther, George N., Charles
IL, Hugh and William T., all of whom are living in Texas.
Mrs. Estella "Williams of Fort Worth, Texas, is a daughter of
Mary Jane Huston Hull, who was the daughter of Rachel Wynne
and Hugh Huston. .Mary, another daughter of Mary -lane, was
married and lived in Urbana, 111. She is now dead, hut left issue.
Ann, daughter of Jonathan Wynn of .Marsh Farm, was born
July 4. 17S6, and married James Huston, who was horn Aug. 25,
17S2. They were married in Chester county, Pa., and removed
to Pickaway county, Ohio. The following are their descendants:
Jonathan W.. of whom presently.
Robert, horn May 25, 1811, .lied Sept. 15, 1834.
Susan Jane, horn Oct. 12, 1813, died July 2, 1896.
Jolm C, born March 15, 1S16.
Letitia E., horn Oct. 7, IS 10, died Oct. 2, 1899.
Nelson, born April 9, 1822, died March 4, 1S7S.
James Hubert, born .Tune 9, 1825, died April 2, 1899.
Rachel Ann, bom Nov. 29, 1827, died Aug. 29, 1884.
.lames Huston, the father, died March 31, 1S27, and his wife,
Ann Wynn Huston, followed him to the grave on Aug. 21, 1S2S.
The three daughters never married; they lived for several years
at Monticello, 111., where they died. We have no further account
of any of the other children except the eldest, Jonathan W., whose
family record we find as follows:
Their son, Jonathan W. Huston, was bora .March 4, 1S09, and
on April 4, 18:5.°), he married Sarah Reber, who was born Jan.
30, 1817. They had the following children: Mary Ann, born
Aug. 25, 1834; Laura Jane, b. Jan. 26, 1836; Clay Henry, b.
Oct. 8, 1837; Corwin Thomas, b. Teh. 11, 1840; Edson Robert,
b. Jan. 4, 1842; Laura Estell, b. Jan. 5, 1S44; Ann Eliza, b.
June 20, 1840; Andrew H., b. April 11, 184S; Sarah Emma, b.
Jan. 20, 1850; John Leber, b. April 22, 1852. Soon after the
birth of her last son the mother died, and later Mr. Huston mar-
ried Luvana H. Pitkin, horn June 9, 1830. They had the fol-
lowing children: Infant, died unnamed, b. Oct. 31, 1854; Felix,
b. March 10, 1857; Edward, b. Nov. 10, 1858; Lincoln, b. Aug.
10, 1800; James, b. June 0. 1802; Harry, b. May 0, 1804; Nel-
son, b. Aug. 10, 1800; Franklin, b. Oct. 10, 1808; Maud, b. Feb.
28, 1871; Grace, b. Oct. 1, 1873; Charles R., h. Oct. 30, 1875;
Luvanc, b. April 1, ls7S.
Of these children, we have been unable to gain further knowl-
edge, except that Reber Huston now lives at Monticello, 111.,
where he is engaged in real estate, loans and conveyances. Grace,
one of the younger daughters of Jonathan Huston, is a prominent
physician of Sunhury, Pa. James Huston lives, we understand,
at Danville, 111. Edson Robert still lives at South Bloomfield,
Pickaway county, Ohio. We are indebted to bis wife, Anna M.
Huston, for a great part of above statement concerning the de-
scendants of Ann Wynne.
Susan Wynn married a ^Ir. Rougher, and settled also near Oir-
cleville, Ohio. Mi-s. BougheT went back to Marsh Farm on a
visit to her old home in ISIS, riding horseback the whole way, in
MRS. OLA. WYNNE HUDSON AND FAMILY. MOUWEQUA. ILL.
company with some friends. We have no trace of her offspring,
except one of them lived in Decatur, 111., and another at Dan-
Jane Wynn married John Root and moved to Philadelphia.
Their children were Lettie, Elizabeth and John. They all
worked for a Mr. McCauley, who was a tanner. Mrs. McCauley
was John Root's sister. The Wynnes of Chester comity used to
take hides down there to exchange for leather. The tannery was
in the south part of Philadelphia. Lettie married a man, name
unknown to us. Elizabeth married a Mr. Brogan; they did well
and lived happily. John was unmarried in 1S42. There may
have been another son. Aunt Jennie came up to Chester county,
Pa., to attend the funeral of her sister, Mary.
Mary Wynn married her cousin, Jonathan Wynn, of whom
THE HUSTOX "COAT OF ARMS."
"At an early period in the history of the Hustons, John Huston,
with a body of soldiers, reinforced a broken column, and for his
great courage and unexampled energy was knighted on the field
of battle. The greyhounds indicate the ileetness of his command
in coming to the rescue; the 'last sand' in the hour glass, the
perilous extremity of the army ; and the motto, 'in tempore,' its
victory. It is the tradition that the Hustons dwelt in the lowlands
of Scotland, and the registering of their coat of arms in the gov-
ernment office at London, proves satisfactorily that their standing
was somewhat, elevated. It is moreover affirmed that they are of
Celtic origin, being unmixed with either Saxon, Danish or Xor-
man. They took a decided stand in favor of the Reformation ;
adopted early the tenets of Calvin; sustained with their substance
and hearts' blood the religious views of John Knox ; and were
persecuted for their rigid adherence to the Bible alone as their
rule of faith and practice, and to the 'Presbytery' as the scrip-
tural form of church government.
"Many of them lied to the north of Ireland to be safe from the
power of their bloodthirsty enemies. At what time the Hustons
first tool; up an abode in Ireland it is impossible, perhaps, to
ascertain now; but we are credibly informed that many of them
were there in the memorable year of 16SS, who with other brave
co-patriots and co-religionists, having sustained the terrific siege
of Londonderry, shared in the final triumph there. Their re-
sistance, stern and gloriously successful, was followed by the
disgraceful departure of the Popish forces of James II, and turned
the scale in favor of William and Mary; secured to William the
crown of England, and to the nation a Protestant succession of
kings and queens down to the present hour. History has estab-
lished these facts beyond all reasonable question or doubt."
(Furnished by Reber Huston, real estate broker, Monticello,
111., and was obtained through Ward T. Huston of Chicago.)
JONATHAN WYXX IV.
THE subject of this sketch was one of the remarkable men
of his race, and left an indelible impress upon his posterity,
as well as the generation in which he lived. Physically he was
tall and muscular, lean to gauntness, and capable of great en-
durance. Of strong mind, mentally and morally; imperious
of will, yet warm-hearted, passionate .and courageous, mild,
gentle and generous; a thoroughgoing Christian character, com-
bined with native shrewdness and sound, practical common sense,
made him a man of note in every community in which he resided.
Mr. Wynn was born in Fayette county, Pa., a neighborhood
nestled in the valley which is formed by the two branches of the
Youghiogheny river, in the southwestern part of the- State. While
still a young man he came East to Chester county to visit his
uncle Jonathan and family, and there he fell in love with his
beautiful cousin, Mary Wynn. His affection was returned by the
young girl, and soon their troth was plighted. But when young
Jonathan came to ask of Mary's father the hand of his sweetheart
he was met by stern refusal, based upon consanguinal reasons.
Xo argument could avail to win the parents' consent, so the usual
method of an elopement was planned and triumphantly executed
on Dec. 10, 1S12. However, in due course of time a reconcilia-
tion was effected, and the young couple was established on a
corner of the home farm, where Jonathan, who had learned the
blacksmith trade, opened a shop, and began his career. On Xov.
20, IS 1:5, a son was born to tlicni, whom they named John Evan,
and on March IS, 1816, a daughter came to bless their home.
This last visitor was named Rachel Ann. Soon afterwards Mary's
father and mother both died, about the year 1817, and the young
family moved away to Orwieksburg, a German town in Schuylkill
county, fifty miles distant, whore Mr. Wynn opened a smith shop.
Here another daughter, Susan Jane, was born on Sept. 1!>, ISIS.
Soon after Mr. Wynn was induced to move to Olds' Forge, not far
away, and there a son, Thomas, was burn Nov. 20, 1S20; but the
location not being a desirable one, he moved back to Orwieksburg,
where a third daughter, Elizabeth Mary, was born Sept. 2S, 1823.
In 1820 Mr. Wynn and family moved to Pottsville, the county
seat of Schuylkill county, about eight miles distant. It was in
Pottsville that Mr. Wynn began a very prosperous financial ca-
reer. He opened two smith shops and employed several mechanics.
In those days, when all sorts of tools and iron work were made by
hand, the trade was an extensive and profitable one. But Mr.
Wyuu did not confine himself exclusively to his trade. lie bought
of Mr. John l'otts, the founder of the town and one of the wealthy
ironmasters of that day, a tract of land adjoining the town and
had it surveyed and platted, lie built several houses, and sold
and traded in real estate until he had acquired considerable prop-
erty ; afterwards he opened a store and added a mercantile line to
his other business. It is related of him that he served several
terms as constable, the office being equivalent in those days to
that of town marshal. In this office he attained quite a reputation
in those rough and ready days, and it is related of him that often
when an affray was in progress on the streets it was only needful
to raise the cry, •"Wynn 's coming!" to cause an instant scattering
of the crowd, fighters as well as bystanders. The plat of Pottsville
still shows Wynn's addition in what is now the heart of a city
of fifteen thousand people.
While Jonathan and Mary were thus building up their fortunes
in other fields of usefulness, the old Marsh Farm, where they
started, had been entrusted since the old people's death to the care
of the hitter's son John, who married and continued to reside there
until the heirs wanted a division. John, acting as administrator,
placed the farm on sale, and Jonathan Wynn bought the one hun-
dred and eightv-nine acre- comprising the farm for the sum of
$2,653.90V^. This sale was confirmed by the court on Feb. 3,
18:50. In 1832 the family moved back to this farm and con-
tinued to reside there for several years. Mr. Wyim sent his
brother-in-law, John, to Pottsville to look after his interests there,
but the latter, not being of a commercial turn, became dissatisfied,
and so Mr. Wynn closed out all his interests there. At Marsh
Farm, the eldest sun, John Evans Wynn, died March 1, ISM.
The eldest daughter, Rachel, was married to Isaac X. Zeubliu on
Nov. 0, 1S37, soon after which the mother, Mary, sickened and
died on Feb. 19, 1S38. Her remains were interred alongside
those of her son in the burying ground attached to Good Will
Methodist Church, a place of worship located about three miles
west of Marsh Farm, and now situated in West Nantmel town-
ship. On Nov. 10, 1S3S, the second daughter, Susan, married
Mr. Christian Arnold.
In December, 1S3S, Jonathan Wynn again married, this time
to Pbcbe Crossley, and the succeeding year, 1839, he with his new
wife and remaining son, Thomas, moved to Madison county, Lid.,
leaving his farm in the East under the tenancy of his sons-in-law,
Zcublin and Arnold. He bought for bis new home a farm a short
distance west of the old town of A If out, now Ingalls, on the banks
of Fall creek. Here three additional children, Isaac, Sarah and
Phebe, were born, and here their mother died. She lies buried
in the neighborhood cemetery near the farm. In the meantime
Mr. Wynne went back to Pennsylvania and sold Marsh Farm to a
Richard Thatcher, receiving therefor $8,000.00, the deed bearing
date of April 1, 1843. Previous to this sale, however, his daugh-
ter, Elizabeth, was married at Marsh Farm to Mr. William Mills
on April 1-1, 1S42.
With the proceeds of the sale of his Pennsylvania farm be pur-
chased a farm in Edgar county, 111., one mile north of the old
town of Ploomnekl and two and a half miles south of the present
prosperous town of Chrisman. Here he installed his son Thomas
and the Arnolds, who came West in 1843. He himself sold his
Fall creek farm and moved with his small children to Pendleton,
buying a large house on North State street, which he occupied.
lie also bought the old Huntsville mills, near that place, and
engaged in both flour and lumber milling. The mill burned down,
and be rebuilt the structure on a larger scale. While at Pendle-
ISAAC NEWTON WYNNE. MINERAL WELLS. TEXAS
ton he married Asenath McFarran, a widow, and moved his
fainilv to Huntsville to be closer to his business. Finally he
traded the mills to a .Mr. Cockayne for a farm in Spring Valley
settlement, three miles cast of Pcndelton. By his last wife lie had
two daughters, Asenath and Caroline, who were born at Hunts-
ville. lie lived for a few years on the Spring Valley farm and
then removed to his farm in Illinois. During a trip which he
made westward in 1856, looking for some desirable land invest-
ment, he was taken sick and died at Montieello, 111., on July 10th
of that year. His remains were brought back and interred in a
family cemetery on his own farm, which is now owned by his
grandson, John YV. Wynn, of Paris, Til.
Rachel, the eldest daughter of Jonathan and Mary Wynn, was
married to Isaac X. Zeublin at Marsh Farm on Nor. 9, 1S37, and
continued to reside in Chester county for several years. Mr.
Zeublin was a descendant of Swiss ancestors, the records dating
back to 1545, when Felix Zublin emigrated from the Tottenberg,
a valley in the Canton of St. Gallon, to the town of St. Gallen.
There the family developed several branches, and in 1744 Hans
Joachim Zublin came to Parisburg, Carolina, where be raised a
family. Later he removed to Savannah, Ga., where he died in
1781. A street in that city is named for him. He was a Reform
preacher. He left two sons, David and John. David was the
father of the husband of Rachel Wynn. This couple had three
children: Jonathan, born Sept. 24, 1S3S; Mary, born July,
1840, and John Evans, born Oct. 2, 1S42, all born at Marsh
Farm. The family soon afterwards came to Pendleton, Ind.,
where Mr. Z. engaged in various businesses, finally becoming
possessed of considerable property, but the financial panic of 1873
was disastrous to his fortunes. Rachel died in 1S74, after long
continued ill health; Mr. Zeublin dying some years later.
The eldest sun, Jonathan W. Zeublin, was born Sept. 24, 1S3S,
in Chester comity, Pa., and resided there until Oct. 1, 1851, when
with his parents he came to Pendleton, Ind., where he lias resided
ever since. He was associated with his father in mercantile pur-
suits, and attended school at Pendleton, and later in Ft. Wayne
College, until the outbreak of the Civil War, when he enlisted,
Aug. 8, 1S62, as a private in the 89th Regiment. Ind. Vol. He
was immediately elected first sergeant, and on Aug. 29, 1862, was
commissioned a lieutenant. He resigned iii 18G3 on account of
disabilities. lie took part in the battle of Mumfordsville, Ky.,
where forty-five hundred Union troops were captured by General
Bragg's Confederate army after an engagement of two days. Mr.
Z. is a member of the M. E. Church; also a prominent member
of Pendleton Lodge, Xo. 88, and Sinai Encampment, Xo. 54,
Daughters of Rebecca, Xo. 1 -30, and Canton Indianapolis, Xo. 2,
I. O. O. F. He is also a member of Major Henry Post, G. A. R.,
and is permanent secretary of the S9th Regimental Association.
On Xov. 29, 1S64, Mr. Z. was united in marriage with Miss
Marietta Reed of Lafayette, Ind., and the following children
blessed this union, both born in Pendleton, Ind.:
Xellie Reed Zeublin, born Oct. 1, 1865, died Sept. 6, 1867.
Emma Lyle Zeublin, born Sept. 26, 1S69. She was married
on June 21, 1899, to Mr. William F. Morris, Jr., a banker of
Pendleton, where they reside. On June 2S, 1903, a daughter,
.Mildred, was born to them.
Mr. Jonathan Zeublin has for many years engaged in farming,
and his elegant suburban home, on the heights overlooking the
cataracts of Fall creek, is one of the landmarks of Madison county.
Mary E. Zeublin, the only daughter of Rachel, was married to
Rev. John Hill, a Methodist minister, and they lived at various
places, wherever the Conference might send them. Tn May, 1ST2,
Mr. Hill was killed at Milwaukee by falling backwards from a
wagon in which he was standing. The children of this marriage
were Charles, Howard, Walter, Luella and Xettie. They are all
married and doing well. Charles is in Chicago, Walter in Wis-
consin, Howard in Evanstun, 111. Luella married Mr. Horace
Dickerman, and resides at Montelair, X. J., while Xettie married
Walter Sharp, and lives in Indianapolis.
John E. Zeublin married Miss Xettie Follette of Xewark, Ohio.
Mr. Z. served (hiring the Civil War as a telegraph operator,
and afterwards held employment in the Western Union and Postal
Union Telegraph Companies, and afterwards in the Central
Union Telephone Company at Chicago, lie died about 1900.
Mr. ami Mrs. Z. had but one child. Charles E., who i< now a
member of the faculty of Chicago University, an author of some
prominence, and a platform orator. His home is in Chicago.
Susan Jane Wynn, daughter of Rev. Jonathan Wynn, was born
at Orwieksburg, Pa., Sept 19, 1818; was married to Christian J.
Arnold at Marsh Farm on Xov. 10, 1838. They remained on the
farm of her father for one year; then moved to Carventry, six
miles away, where they stayed two years, moving thence to Spring-
field* Pa., in West Nantmel township, where Mr. Arnold engaged
in the dry goods trade with Elijah Pull. In 1844, he sold out,
and the family came West to Edgar county, PL, where he in con-
nection with his brother-in-law, Thomas Wynn, occupied Rev.
Mr. Wynn's farm for about one year, when he engaged in teach-
ing. Went into ministry, served :it Danville in 1850, Montieello,
Camargo and other good charges. Bought farm near Mouwequa
in 1870; lived there till his death en April 19, 1872. Susan J.
continued to live there till 1S74, when she sold out and came to
live with her brother in Edgar county, 111. ; afterwards at her
sister French's. In 18*4 she bought an orange plantation in
De Land, Fla., where she died .Tidy 1, 1897.
The children of Mr. and Mrs. Arnold were Hannah Ann and
Mary Elizabeth, twins, who were born at Marsh Farm, Pa., on
Jan. 11, 1840. They died within three days of diphtheria, when
about six years of age. A son, Charles, was born October, 1849.
He married while living near Mouwcqua, TIL, and had a daughter,
Blanche. He was killed while in the employ of a railroad com-
pany. His daughter lives in Columbus, Ohio. Jonathan Evans,
another son of Susan, was born Feb. 13, 1852, at Montieello, 111.
He married Lydia Hoe] at Ridge Farm, Til. They resided in
Illinois for a time, but finally moved to Florida, where they have
since resided at Orlando, that State. Their children are Polio,
born in Illinois, a daughter, and Charles and Lisle, the latter
three born in Florida. Mr. Arnold has for many years been
deputy postmaster in his home town.
Elizabeth Wynn, youngest daughter of Rev. Jonathan and
Mary Wynn. was born at Orwieksburg, Schuylkill county, Pa.,
on Sept. 28, 1823. In 1826 she went with her parents to live at
Pottsville. the county seat of Schuylkill county. In 1832 they
moved to. Marsh Farm, Chester county, where she lived for a
time with her parent.-, and afterwards with her sister, until her
marriage with Sir. William Mills on April 14, 1842. The couple
moved to Pottsville, where Mr. Mills followed the occupation of
carpenter, and was conducting quite a successful business at the
time of his death, which occurred Jan. 12, 1S45. lie left his
widow and two little daughters — Emma, born May 22, 1843, and
Alice, born Sept. 1, 1845 — the latter of whom joined her father
"on tlic other side," dying in -May, 1846. Elizabetb and her re-
maining daughter went back to Chester county and lived with her
sister Rachel for a short time, and came West in 1850 to her
father's home in Spring Valley. Here she met James E. French,
whom she married at the Spring Valley farm, near Pendleton,
hid., on Dec. 24, 1S50, and they continued to reside in and about
Pendleton for many years, Mr. French being a cabinet-maker by
trade. In 1870 he, with his brother-in-law, Zeublin, ami others,
became interested in the Cataract Woolen Mills at Pendleton, hut
the enterprise not proving successful, the factory was changed to
a flour and lumber mill. Through the mismanagement of the
superintendent, and the financial panic of 1S73, the company
became involved, and the Frenches lost most of their fortune. In
1S83 they went to Richmond and resided there for two years. In
1SS6 Mr. French accepted a position as instrument inspector of
the Postal Union Telegraph Company, with headquarters at Bal-
timore, Md., remaining there two years. In 1SSS they moved t"
Evansville, Ind., where tiny resided two years, until Mr. French's
health became so had that they concluded to change climate. They
spent eighteen months in Florida, and then resided at Indian-
apolis, Ind., until 1891. The winter of 1S91 they spent in
Knightstown, Ind.. and in the spring of 1S92 they returned to
Pendleton, Ind., when 1 Mr. French died on Aug. t~l, 1892, and lies
buried in the Falls Cemetery, near that town. The widow, Eliza-
beth M., continued to reside at Pendleton till 1S93, when she
went to live with her grandaugbter, Mrs. ,1. C. Weaver, at Green-
ville, Ohio, where she still resides.
Elizabeth Amelia, the daughter of Elizabeth Wynn, was horn
in Pottsville, Pa., on May 22. 1S43, and was brought West when
a child by her grandfather Wynn. She was married at Pendle-
ton, Ind., on Dee. 2-1. 1864, to Dr. Harry Cunningham, of War-
rington, Ind. The result of ibis union was three children: Anna
Rebecca, born dan. 11, 186(5, at Pendleton; Ursom Mills, horn
Feb. 14, 1S6S, at Warrington, and Elizabeth, born at Pendleton,
May 4, l^Tl. The family moved to St. Catherine, Canada, after-
■ '• ' \ :
MRS. MARY WYNNE SOTHERS AND FAMILY. KANSAS
wards living in Winchester and Indianapolis, Ind. Mrs. Cun-
ningham died in the latter city March 12, 1890, and was buried
Anna, the eldest daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Cunningham, was
married Sept. 27, 1S93, at Pendleton, to Mr. Jonathan C. Weaver,
a prominent druggist of" Greenville, Ohio, where they have since
resided. They have two children: Howard Ersom, born Feb. G,
1S95, and Esther, born March 30, 189&, both living.
Ursom M. Cunningham was married to Catherine Crossley at
Indianapolis, Aug. 7, 1S92. He is an operator in employ of the
Western Union Telegraph Company, and the family now live in
Chicago. They have two children: Catherine, born in Chicago,
Aug. 1, 1895, and Margery, bom in Chicago, Feb. 12, 1901.
Elizabeth Cunningham was married at Indianapolis to Mr.
George Spence in December, 1891. The husband died there July 7,
1892. Afterwards the widow married Charles S. Peeves, in Illi-
nois, Sept. 18, 1894. The couple moved to Miland, Minn., where
Roy Ersom, their eldest child, was born, Feb. 3, 1890. They
moved to Virginia, Minn., January, 1897, where Ralph was born,
Dec. 16, 1S98, and Frank and Clarence were born Aug. 30, 1900.
They moved to Wert, Texas, in September, 1901, and June Lu-
cille was born there Feb. 18, 1902. The family now lives at York,
Ala. Mr. Peeves is a telegraph operator.
Of the children of Jonathan Wynn by his second wife, Isaac,
the eldest, died while the family resided at Pendleton about the
year 18-15. Sarah married .Mr. Nathaniel Mills, a brother of
William Mills, the husband of her half-sister, Elizabeth, and they
moved to Wilkesbarre, Pa., where they lived for many years,
and where Sarah died about the year 1S9G, leaving two daughters.
The third child, Phebe, married Mr. Taylor Walls, the agent of
the C, C, C. Ar St. L. railroad at Pendleton, in the year 1864, and
continued to reside there until after Mr. Walls' death, which oc-
curred in 1S73; the results of this union being three boys, Harry,
Edward and William, and a girl, May. In 1S7<'> Phebe married
Mr. Wesley Schooley and they moved to Stockwell, Tippecanoe
county, Ind., where they purchased a farm and continued to reside
till Mrs. Schooley's death, which occurred in October, 1S94. Of
Phebe's children by her first husband, Harry committed suicide
while yet a young man; Edward married a Miss Wallace and now
lives in California; William lived to be seventeen years old, and
while hunting accidentally shot himself, the wound proving fatal;
tlie daughter, May, married and lives in Memphis, Tenn. Besides
these children, Phebe gave birth to twins, who died in infancy.
By her second husband she had one daughter, Bertha, who lives
with her father in Elkhart, Ind.
Of the children of Rev. Jonathan Wynn's third marriage,
Asenath was horn at Pendleton, Ind., Sept. 9, 18-16; Caroline,
born April 20, 1S4S; Jonathan, horn April 2S, 1852. The last
child died Aug. S, 1^53. Asenath married Mr. Isaac D. Bosworth
at Kinmundy, 111., >Scpt. 22, 1>>G7. They lived for a year in
Indianapolis, and afterwards moved to Anderson, Ind., where
she resided till her death, June 13, 1^93. From this marriage
three children resulted: Asenath Luella, born Jan. 6, 1809; Alda
Estella, born Sept 1", 1873, and Isaac Gordon, born Aug. S,
1877. The eldest, Asenath Luella, was born in Indianapolis. On
Dec. 15, 1890, she was married to W. S. Poling. They have made
their home in Anderson ever since. They have one child, Asenath
Aubrey, born Jan. 13, 1S'J2.
Alda Estella was born in Anderson. On Xov. 20, 1891, she
married Guy J. Derthick of Johnstown, Ohio, and removed to
the husband's home, where their son, Harold, was born Dec. 17,
1898. They moved to Anderson, Ind., in 1901, where they now
Isaac Gordon Bosworth was born in Anderson. He served in
the Spanish-American war; was doing service in Cuba. On July
1C, 1900, he was married to Miss Lena Sicbel, who died Xov. 13,
1903. No children. Mr. B. made his home in Anderson till
1905, when he removed to Kokomo, where he now resides.
The second daughter, Caroline, married a Mr. Fairchild of
Wisconsin. They had a son, Walter, born in 18G6. His present
whereabouts is unknown. Afterwards Caroline married a Mr.
Xoly and on March 31, l^in, she died at Anderson.
The widow of Rev. Jonathan Wynn lived for a while at the
old farm in Edgar county, HI., and finally married a Mr. Gibson,
who died soon after. In 1ST!) the elder Asenath died in Ander-
son, two weeks after the death of her daughter Caroline.
Thomas, the only son of Lev. Jonathan and Mary Wynn, who
reached the age of maturity, was born at Old's Forge, in Sehuyl-
kill comity, Pa., uii Nov. 22, 1S20, and during his early years
lived at various places in the same State, and in 1839 he came
with his father to Madison county, Ind., and lived on a farm near
Alfont. In 1843, his lather having bought a farm in Edgar
county. 111., he went there to live, and in a few years took entire
charge of the estate.
On Oct. 1, 1845, Thomas was married to Miss Lina IToult.
The bride was born in Virginia on Dec. 20, 1S23, ami was the
daughter of a prominent farmer of Edgar county, 111. To this
couple were horn the following children: Mary Elizabeth, born
.lime 2!», 1S46 ; John W., born Aug. 4, 1847.; Charles M., born
May 22, 1849; Sarah Jane, born .March 4, 1851; Rachel Ann,
born March 28, 1S52; Eosetta, horn Sept, IS, 1854; Viola, born
May 28, 1857; Velmda, born April 3, I860. The wife, Lina
Wynn, died on the 3d of March, 1861, leaving Mr. Wynn with a
large family of small children to care for. So, a few months after
being left a widower, he espoused his first wife's sister, Dorothy,
who was at the time a widow of McKee, deceased. Dorothy
Hoult was born in Virginia, March 12, 1822. Of this latter mar-
riage three children were burn: Jonathan, born May 11, 1SC2;
Isaac X., born July 31, 1863, and Elisha II., born Dec. 11, 1865.
The mother of these last children died June 26, 1S75, and Eosetta,
one of the older children, died May 17, 1869.
Mr. Wynn continued to reside in Illinois until 1SS0, when he
sold out and removed to Palo Pinto county, Texas, where he con-
tinued to reside until his death on Sept. 24, 1906, in the eighty-
sixth year of his age. On , , he married a third
wife, Miss Lida Mitchell of Cincinnati, who survived him, and
still lives at Wynne-wood Place, one of the most beautiful country
homes of that State.
Mary Elizabeth "Wynn, the eldest child, was married on May
20, 1866, in Edgar county, 111., to John Thomas Sothers, who
was born in the same county, Jan. 1, 1838. They resided in
Edgar county, and their oldest child, William .Mitchell, was born
March 16, 1867; he died April ID, 1867. In 1S6S they removed
to Champaign county, 111., and Ida May was born Aug. 15, 1869 ;
she djed Aug. 11, 1870. In 1870 they removed to Republic
county, Kan., where their third child, Elmer Mitchell, was born,
July 13, 1871. Jesse Edmund Sothers was born March 25, 1SS0,
and John William Sothers was born April 5, 1SS2.
The olde.it living child, Elmer Mitchell Sothcrs married, Xov.
7, 1894, Miss Clam Jane Downing, born Oct. In, 1871, in Han-
cock county, 111. To this union were horn: Lloyd 1)., horn Sept.
1, 1895, died Aug. 20, 189G; Gertrude .1., born June 24, 1900;
Elder M., horn Fob. 3, 1909; Thelma E., horn Oct. 14, 1904, and
Edna Slay, horn May 2, 1900. All in Republic county, Kan.
.Jesse Edmund Sothcrs was married on .Ian. 10, 1906, to Miss
Enagel Emily Tietjen, who was horn in Franklin county, Neb., on
April 25, 1885. They have one child, Eva lone, horn Oct. 13,
1900, in Franklin county, Xeh.
John William Sothcrs was married Xov. 15, 1905, to Miss
Frances Eva Woods, who was horn April 4, 1SS5, in Republic
The father, John Thomas Sotbers, died on Sept. 10, 1900, in
Shawnee county, Kan., after a lingering illness, and his widow
now resides at Riverton, Kan.
John W. Wynn, the eldest son of Thomas and Lina, was born
at Bloomfield, Edgar county, 111., on the 4th day of August, 1S47.
He has continued to live in the county ever since. He is one of
the best known farmers of the county, and followed that occupa-
tion actively until September, 1904, when he removed with his
family to Paris, the county seat, where he has since resided. On
Sept. 14, 1870, Mr. Wynn united in marriage with Miss Emma
Jones, who was born at Logan, same county, July 10, 1850. To
them was born a son, Charles, on Feb. 14, 1SS5, but who died
July 2G, 1885. There was also born a daughter, Clara Laverna,
on April 9, 1881. The mother died June IS, 1SS5, after a short
illness. On July 1, 1886, Mr. Wynn married his first wife's
sister, Laura May Jones, who was born at Logan, Sept. 10, 1802.
To them were horn a daughter, Myrtle, at PJoomfield, on Aug. 20,
1888. Miss Laverna Wynn is a graduate of Hamilton College,
at Lexington, Ky., and resides with her parents. Miss Myrtle
attended Palmer Academy, at Paris, Til. On Sept. 6, 1900, she
was married to Conrad Lee Wittick, and they reside at Paris, Til.
Charles Wynn continued to live on the old farm until grown,
then went further West and finally settled near Waco, Texas,
where he engaged in stock raising ami cotton growing. On March
3, 1881, at Brandon, Texas, he was married to Miss Mary A.
York, who was born near Carnesville, Ga., but moved to Texas
u'licii ten years of age. The couple had the following named chil-
dren: Cagah Watson, born .March 30, 1882; Gertrude, born
Sept. 17, 1883; Thomas Edgar, born .March 18, 1S85; Sadie, born
July 1, 18Si>; Linnie, born Oct. 13, 1888; all born in Brandon.
The father, Charles, died Nov. 4, 1889, and was buried at Palo
Of his family, Gertrude died Dec. 31, 1SS4. The widow mar-
ried J. A. Dillehay Xov. 30, 1S93. Edgar lives in Dallas, Texas,
where ho is employed. The other children are at home.
Sarah dam.' Wynn, being ten years old when her mother died,
went to live with her aunt, Rachel Zeublin, at Pendleton, Ind.
On Dec. 24, 1S74. she was married to Thomas B. Deem, at that
time publisher of the Pendleton Register. The couple continued
to reside there until December, 187<i, when they removed to
Knightstown, Ind., where Mr. Deem bought and published the
Banner until l.s,"v>. In 1SS7 Mr. Deem was made general man-
ager of the Knightstown Natural Gas Company, and in 1892 he
became manager of the Conserve Company's vegetable canning
plant. There were born to Mr. and Mrs. Deem two sons and a
daughter: Percy Wynn. born Jan. 1, 187<>; Donald Howard,
bom Jan. 4, 18s,",, and Xadia Florence, born July 30, 1892. The
first named was born in Pendleton, and died at El Paso, Texas,
June 5, 1899; buried at Knightstown. The other children were
born in Knightstown. Donald II. graduated from Purdue Uni-
versity in 1906, and now holds a position with the Xew York
Telephone Company at Brooklyn, X. Y. Xadia F. is still at
home. The mother died after a long illness on July 30, 1S9S,
and was buried at Knightstown. On Aug. 1, 1S09, Mr. Deem
married Miss Martha G. Hall, who has been a truly exemplary
mother of the former's children.
Rachel A. Wynn was born in Edgar county. 111., and resided
there for several years; then went to live with her sister, Mary, in
Iowa, and moved with them to Republic county, Kan., where she
was married on X'ov. 10, 1S72, to Mr. S. P. Mover, who was bom
in Lee county, Iowa, Jan. 23, 1852. The couple returned to Ap-
pomoose county, Iowa, and lived for several years. They have
one son, John W. Mover, who was born during this period — Xov.
23, 1875. In 1880 the family removed with Thomas Wynn to
Palo Pinto, Texas, where they remained for a few years, and then
located in Weatherford, Texas, where they have since resided.
Mr. Moyer is a carpenter and contractor. The son, John W.
.Mover, studied law, was admitted to the bar and lias a tine prac-
tice. He has served a term as county attorney.
Viola Wynn was born in Edgar county, 111. While still a small
girl she was taken to live with her aunt, Susan Arnold, at Mowea-
qua, 111., where she remained for several years, and where she
formed the acquaintance of her future husband, Mr. Thomas
Hudson, to whom .-he was married -May 4, 187(J. They lived on
a farm near Moveaqua till 1SSG, when they moved to Palo Pinto,
Texas, remaining there a few years, and then returning to their
former residence, where they still reside. There were born to
them five daughters and three m>hs: Jessie, born Jan. 14, 1878;
Lina, born March 2S, 1SS0 ; Louise Bay, born Aug. 5, 1S85;
Harry Morton, born Jan. 30, 1SSS; James Edward, born Xov.
17, 1891; Hester, bom Feb. 14, 1S95; Zoe, born Feb. 11, 1897;
Ralph Karl, born Xov. 27, 1S9S.
Linnie Wynn, the youngest daughter of Thomas Wynn, was
born in Edgar county, 111. She lived at home, except one year,
when she attended high school at Pendleton, Ind. She was mar-
ried to William T. Watson Oct. 10, 1878, and they lived for two
years at Ridge Farm, 111. Then Mr. Watson bought the old
Wynn homestead and they lived thereon till about 1893, when
they moved to Chrisman, 111. Here they continued to reside until
Mrs. Watson's death, which occurred on May 2, 1905. Mr. Wat-
son still owns the old farm. He is an enterprising farmer and
stockman, and at one time was vice-president of the Chrisman
Xational P>ank. He has large landed interests in southern Indi-
ana. Seven children were born to this marriage: Walter (!.,
born Oct. 4, 1880, and died May 21, 1882; Minnie M., born Oct.
20, 1884; Lida W., born Sept. 14, 18SG; Mabel M., born Dec.
16, 1889; Martha M., bom Oct. 3. 1893; Newton E., born Jan.
31, 1896, and John W., born Oct. 22, 1898. All arc living except
the first named. Five of the children were born on the old farm;
the last two at Chrisman.
Jonathan, the oldest son of Thomas and Dorothy Wynn, was
born in Illinois, and remained there until 1880, when he accom-
panied his father to Texas. Here he was interested in farming
and stock-raising until 1890, when he went further West and be-
came an employe of a railroad construction company, which was
building a bridge across the Columbia river at Astoria, Oregon.
On June 29, 1802, he came to his death by being struck with a
falling timber, which knocked him senseless into the water, and
he drowned before aid could reach him.
The second son, Isaac Newton 3 was raised in Illinois, and ac-
companied his father to Texas, where he was engaged for several
years on the farm. He afterwards went to Mineral Wells, Texas,
and established the Bank of Mineral Wells, of which he was made
assistant cashier, and afterwards cashier, which place he has held
ever since, lie married Miss Emma Duke. No children.
Elisha Wynn, the youngest son, born in Illinois, remained
there until 1880, when he accompanied his father and two brothers
to Texas, where he continued to reside for several years. He after-
wards went to Montana, where he died May 25, 1900.
Sarah Wynn Mills, born Feb. 23, 1630, daughter of Rev.
Jonathan Wynn, married Capt. Nathaniel Mills on Aug. 5,
1S5S, removed to Northumberland county, Pa., and settled on a
farm on the Susquehanna river, opposite Sunbury. They had
three daughters: Caddie, born in 1S59 ; Fanny, born lSu'l, and
Josephine, born 1SG3. Caddie and Josephine are unmarried.
Fanny married Joseph B. Garrihan on Oct. 25, 1881. Their
oldest son, William Nathaniel, was born Oct. 6, 18S2; Nellie,
born Dec. 30, 1885; Toy, born July 21, 1SSS. The eldest son is
a soldier in the Philippines. Mr. Garrihan died in January,
1904. The family live at Garrihan, Allegheny county, Pa.
Sarah Wynn Mills died March 19, 1890, but her husband, the
captain, lives in Sunbury, Pa.
Elizabeth Wynn was the daughter of Benjamin, the son of
Thomas Wynn of Fayette county, Pa., and was bom Aug. 21,
1811, and died June 23, 1S:>2. She married Isaac Burkholder,
who was horn July 13, 1803, and died Oct. 10, 1ST0. They re-
moved to Monticello, 111., where they lived for many years, and
where they reared a family. Their children were .Mary Ann,
born June 12, 1S35 ; Susan Jane, born March 11, 1839; Henry,
born March 19, 1841 ; Adaline. born Oct. 7, 1843; Matilda, born
Dec. 17, 1S45; Lydia, born Aug. 18, 1851. Susan married Ar-
thur Phelps and has two ehildn n : she died July 23, 1S93. Ada-
line married William Addis, and they live in Decatur, 111., and
have a son, Walter, who is married ;ui<l 1ms issue. Lvdia married
Henry Addis, a brother of William. She died soon after mar-
riage; they had a daughter. Mary Ann married P. S. Linell;
they have four children, and live at Wichita, Kan. Henry mar-
ried Carrie Shopicr; had two children. Matilda married Edward
Brush, and had one son.
FA M J I. V OF J A M ES W Y X XE.
JAAIES WYXXE, the son of Thomas and Ann Wynne of
Fayette connty, removed t<> Chester county, Pa., and was
married there. He had three sons: Jonathan, Thomas and
James. While the hoys were mere lads the father died, and the
children were divided among the relatives.
Jonathan, the eldest, was taken into the family of Jonathan
Millard ami reared to maturity. After marrying he moved to
Landenberg, in the southern part of Chester county, hut afterwards
moved hack to Wot Xantmel township, where he continued to
reside until his death, by consumption, in 1904. His son now
lives near Downington, that county. His daughter, Sarah, mar-
ried a Mr. McQuier and lives next to Bernard, near Coatsville,
Chester county. Ik' had another son, hut we failed to learn his
name or whereabouts.
The third son, James, was reared by his uncle. Rev. Jonathan
Wynne. He remained East with Rachel Zeublin until Jonathan
Wynne sold Marsh Farm to Richard Thatcher, whereupon he
stayed with Thatcher for a while, afterwards removing to Potfcs-
ville to work for Samuel Mills on stage work. Afterwards he
removed to Totter county, Pa., where he died in 1S.">4, and lies
buried there. He never married.
Thomas, the second son of James Wynne, was taken care of
by Rev. Thomas Millard of Chester county, with whom he re-
mained until manhood. They all came West to Crawford county,
Ohio, in 1S34. Afterwards young Thomas came on West to Han-
cock county, Ind., and settled on a farm. He was horn Nov. 12,
1 S 2 2 , and on .May 17. 1S40, he married Mary Ann Cook, who
was horn Sept. 9, IS27. Their children are: Susan ('., horn
DONALD H. DEEM. NEW YORK CITY
Sept. 17, 1S50; Sarali E., born June 5, 1S52; Mary Alice, born
Jan. IS, 1855; Barbara E., born May 27, 1857; Lina J., born
Oct. 30, 18*10; Thomas T., born Oct. G, 1SG2, and Rachel S.,
born Fob. 18, 1SC5. The family removed to Edgar county, 111.,
and here Mary Alice died Sept. 23, 1S01, and Lina J. died Dec.
4, 1801. Some of t lie younger children seem to have been born in
that county. On the outbreak of the Great Rebellion the father,
Thomas, enlisted and served during the war. Soon after his re-
turn from the army the family returned to Hancock county, Lad.,
where the father died. The widow still survives, and resides with
her daughter, Susan, at Ingalls, Ind. Of their remaining chil-
dren we give the following:
Susan C. Wynn, born Sept. 17, 1850, was married on Sept. 1,
1872, to William D. Graves, who was born July 7, 184S, and died
July 22, 1^~>1. They resided near Alfont, Madison county, Ind.,
and their children, all born in that neighborhood, are as follows:
1, Mary M., born July 5, 1874. and died Feb. 3, 1870; 2, Cora A.,
born Jan. 2, 1876, and died Xov. 7, 187G ; 3, William W., born
Aug. 1, 1878, married to Nellie Anderson on Xov. 7, 1896, and
they live in Indianapolis, where Mr. G. is engaged in the storage
business. Their children are Earl Forest, born May 2G, 1S9G;
James William, born June 12, 1898; Everett Otis, born April 24,
1901, and Percy Thomas, horn June 17, 1905. On the death of
her husband, William D. Graves, the widow, Susan, married for
her second husband Joseph Kimberly, who was born Oct. IS,
1S47, with whom she lives at Ingalls, Ind.
Sarah E. Wynn, the second daughter of Thomas Wynn, who
was born June 5, 1^52, married near Alfont, Ind., on Feb. 20,
1873, Mr. Joel Speer, who was born Oct. 29, 1850. Their chil-
dren are: 1, Charles E., born Feb. 21, 1874, .lied July IS, 1S74 ;
2, Jesse A., born April 27. 1S7G, married to Estella L. Folger on
Dec. 24, 1895, have no children; 3, Anna E., born Aug. 21, 1877,
was married to Adelhert ]>. Cox on Feb. 12, 1894, have one child,
Gladys I., born Dec. 9, 1896; 4, David E., was born Feb. 21,
1882, was married to Delia M. T.awson March 2G, 1903, have one
child, Raymond D.. horn July 20, 1904; 5, William T., born
March 20, 1SS5; 6, Elsie M., born July 17, 1891. On the 21st
day of August, 1806, Joel Speer, the father, died, and three years
thereafter, on July 2G. 1899, the widow, Susan (Wynn), married
Joseph W. Iliday, who was horn Jan. 9, 1830. They live at
Barbara Ella, the fourth child of Thomas Wynne, was born
May 27, 1857. She was married to William Teague on Dec. 2'.),
1878* To them were burn two sons: 1, Tracy S., Oci. 22, 1S79,
who married Lola C. Ovler April 16, 1902, and had one child,
Thclnia O., born Dee. 28, 1 f»o:J ; 2, Brady League, born Jan. 2,
1 SSI, and died April of same year. The mother, Barbara Ella
(Wynn), also died June 10, 18S1. The father, William Teague,
lives in Greenfield, Ind. The older son, Tracy, went to live with
his grandmother at Pendleton, Ind., until grown. He now lives
with his family at the same place.
Thomas T., only son of Thomas Wynne, was born Oct. G, 18G2,
and died .May 29, 1875.
Rachel G., the youngest child of Thomas Wynne, was born
Feb. 18, 1S65. She married Morton Dennis, a baggagernaster, of
Anderson, Ind., where they now reside. Rachel has two children:
Everett, born Oct. 30, 1SS5, and Lulu May, born July 22, 1SS7.
THE OHIO BRANCH.
JOHN WYXX was the son of Jonathan Wynn ami Lettie
Hewett, and was born in Chester county, Pa., on Jan. 12,
1791. He was married to Rebecca Hiilman at East Xantmel,
that county, on April 13, 1816, Rev. Joseph Hunter officiating.
His bride was born Oct. 21, 1790. They continued to reside at
the old homestead of Marsh Farm till 1834, when they emigrated
to Ohio, settling in Crawford county, that State. Here Mr.
Wynn cleared a farm and improved it, and raised a large family,
ami continued to reside there until his death, which occurred Aug.
10, 1864. His wife followed him to the Great Beyond on Sept.
22, 1866. The family were prominent and influential in their
district. They had nine sons and two daughters, born as follow-:
Jonathan, April 2:., 1817; Michael Holloran, Feb. 8. 1S1!);
Leonard Asbury, .March 21. 1821; Thomas, Dec. :'.. 1822; Sam-
uel. May 31, 1S25; l.-aac, Feb. 27, 1827; Anna Maria, Nov. 19,
1S2S: John Librand, April 11. 1S31 ; Ewart Smith. March 1.
1833; David, Aug. 2S, 1S35: Elizabeth Jane, April 1, 18:18. Of
this number, Michael died Oct. 1, 1823, and Leonard Asbury died
March 24, 1820. The others lived to years of maturity. We are
able t<> give the following information concerning the other chil-
Jonathan Wynn was horn in Chester county, Pa., April 25,
1817; moved with parents to Crawford county, Ohio, in October,
1834. On Dec. 20, 1838, he was married to .Miss Eliza A. Cum-
mins of Auburn township, Crawford county, Ohio. By trade he
was a millwright. Mr. and Mrs. Wvnn resided in Crawford and
Huron counties until 18-49, when they moved to Lucas county,
Ohio (Spencer township), and in 1853 they bought a farm (in
the woods) near Toledo, where they lived until their death. Mr.
Wynn died Jan. 21, 1805, and Mrs. Wynn's death occurred Feb.
9, 1SSS. Their children:
David Harrison Wynn, born in Crawford county, Dec. 28,
1840. He served in the Rebellion three years, Company H, 111th
Regt. O. V. I. He never married and is now living at Long
Elmira Amanda Wynn, born in Crawford county, Dec. 30,
1S42. Married Oct. 1, 1870, to James K. Jones of Grafton, Ohio.
She died near Toledo, Aug. 23, 1873.
Henry Clay Wynn, born in Crawford county, Sept. 24, 1845.
Died Feb. 2G, 1857.
Eliza Ellen Wynn, born in Huron county, Dec. 6, 1847. Mar-
ried Dec. 22, 1873, to Samuel Spark Minuse of Milan, Ohio.
Mrs. Minuse died in Toledo, Feb. 10, 1906. To Mr. and Mrs.
Minuse were born four children:
Hartwell Norton Minuse, born Xov. 3, 1874.
Alfred Wynn Minuse, born Dec. 12, 1879. Married June 6,
1903, to Miriam Reed of Xew York City. Mr. Minuse graduated
from Toledo High School and later graduated from Webb
Academy, Xew York, as a marine architect. Mr. and Mrs.
Minuse have one daughter, Olive, born Aug. 26, 1905.
Samuel Marks Minuse, born July 27. 1882.
lone Eliza, born Sept. 22, 1887.
Mary M. Wynn, born in Lucas county, July 12, 1850. Mar-
ried Feb. 10, 1SS6, to John Eteau of Toledo. To them were born
three children :
Edna Eliza Eteau, born May 9, 1888. She is a teacher in
John Leonard Eteau, born Oct. 15, 1SS9.
Earl Wynn Eteau, born Dee. 31, 1891.
Nancy A. Wynn, born in Lucas county, Feb. 17, 1852. Mar-
ried April 14, 1ST:., to Peter B. Miller. Died July 20, 1S93.
To them were born four sons and three daughters :
Edith Wynn Miller, born Jan. IS, 1876. Married to C. Ray
Woodward of Liberty Center, Ohio, where they reside.
Frank E. Miller, born July 13, 1877.
Ernest Paid Miller, born March 12, 1SS2.
Orville Elaine .Miller, born Nov. 20, 1883.
Ethel Pearl Miller, horn June 21, 1SSG. Died Feb. 17, 190G.
Byron Gordon Miller, horn Jan. IS, 1888.
Sarah Angeline Miller, horn Dec. 15, 189 i. Died April 11,
Thomas J. Wynn, horn in Lucas county, Dec. 10, 1S53.
Married April 4, 1SSS, to Emma E. Tippin. To them was horn
Alice Irene Wynn, born April 2, 1895. Died July 15, 190G.
John Charles Fremont Wynn, born in I/ucas county, Dec. 13,
1S56. Unmarried and living in San Francisco, Cal.
Pearl 0. Wynn. horn in Lucas county, Ohio, Feb. 13, 1S65.
Married Dec. 3, 1SS9, to Dr. Harry P. Ilaag of Liberty Center,
Ohio, where they now reside.
Thomas Wynn, son of John and Bcbecca Ilallman Wynn, was
born in Chester county, Pa., Dec. 3, 1822, and died at his home
on his farm, five miles northeast of Toledo, O., where he had lived
for forty-eight years. On Sept. 21, 1843, he- was married to Miss
Xancy Cummins in Crawford county, Ohio. To them were horn
one son and five daughters. The son and one daughter died as
infants. The- others are as follows:
Clarissa Ann Wynn. bom July 30, 1845, in Crawford county.
She was married on June 27, 1SG7, to Samuel Jacobs, of Toledo,
Ohio. They have five daughters: 1. Xorma, horn April 19,
1SG8, iu Toledo; she was married on June 2, 1904, to W. G.
Crummond of Detroit, Mich., the wedding occurring in Mala-
bang, .Mindanao, Philippine Islands. They now live in Xew
York City. She was a teacher in Toledo public schools for twenty
years. 2. Elsie, born in Toledo, Dec. 28, 1S69; graduated from
Toledo High School in June. 1888. On Oct. G, 1891, she was
married to David Baldwin Gihnore of Toledo, and they have two
sons: Abraham Donald, burn Dec. 4, 1S93, and Samuel Gordon,
born Xov. 24, 1S0G, both born in Toledo. 3. Clara Jacobs, born
Sept. 29, 1S72, in Toledo; who graduated from the high school in
June, 1S90, and is now a teacher in the city schools. 4. Mabel
Wynn Jacobs, born May 27, 1876, in Toledo. On Jan. 28, 1903,
she was married to Frederick Curtis of Jonesville, Mich., and they
have one son — Robert Wade, born Xov. 29, 190G, in Jonesville.
5. Nancy Helen Jacobs, born in Toledo, Oct. 22, 18S2. In June,
1900, she graduated from Toledo High School.
Mary Rebecca Wynn was born Dec. 27, 1S46, in Crawford
county, Ohio, and died Jan. 10, 1855, in Lucas county, Ohio.
Margaret Letitia Wynn was born Feb. 23, 1S4S, in Lucas
county, Ohio, and died March 31, 1S52.
Xorman Saline Wynn was born Feb. 23, 1S57, in Lucas
county, Ohio. On Aug. 1, 1S92, she was married to Charles
Williams Douglass, of Toledo, O.
. Ewart Smith Wynn was born in Chester county, Pa., March
10, 1S33. He came to AYellersville, Crawford county, Ohio, three
years later with his parents. On Aug. 14, 1859, he was married
to Miss Sarah A. Hageman, who was born in Rowsburg, Wayne
county, Ohio, Jan. 10, 1835. Six children -were born to this
couple. The wife died Oct. 2, 1S96. The children are as follows:
Henry "Wilson Wynn was horn April S, I860. He followed
farming for many years, but latterly has retired. He never
Matilda Jane Wynn was born March 6, 1S62. On Dec. 12,
18S3, she married Ecnj. F. Cummings, and to them were bom
five children: Mary Estella, born Sept. 29, 18S4, now a school
teacher; Margaret Maud, horn June 20, 1888; Otto Thomas, born
July 14. 1890, student; Howard Smith, horn June 4, 1893,
student; Leah Rebecca, born June 16, 1902.
John Franklin Wynn was horn Jan. 1, 1864. To him and his
wife were l>om Ewart Smith, Aug. 9, 1891 ; Gladys, born Jan. S,
1895. Ewart died Oct. 24, 1893.
Catherine Rebecca Wynn was born Feb. 11, 1S66. Single.
Charles Leonard Wynn was born Feb. 16, 1S6S. Single.
George Irving Wynn was born May 28, 1S71. Single.
The elder Ewart Smith Wynn and most of his family live in
Toledo, Ohio, and are well-to-do people.
Elizabeth .lane Wynn was the youngest member of a family
of eleven children. She was born in Crawford county, Ohio,
April 4, 183S. She was united in marriage on Xov. 22, I860,
with John H. Millard, and the union was blessed with four chil-
dren. Tlie family are Presbyterians. The mother died on Nov.
23, 1S97, at her home in Calhoun, 111., where the family have for
some years resided. Following are her descendants:
May Millard was born Sept. 22, 1863, and was married to
Charles Williamson May 10, 1S90; to whom were born Edna,
Dee. 21, 1890; John, Aug. 24, 1892; Elma, Aug. 28, 1894;
Homer, Feb. 11, 1900. The husband is a fanner.
Jay Millard was bom April 12, 1866. He is a machinist, and
Irving Millard was born in the fall of 1874, and died when only
three and one-half years old.
Burton Millard was born Dec. 23, 1877. lie married Edith
Jones on March 20, 1899. He is a farmer and machinist. This
union was blessed with three daughters: Clara, born Jan. 29,
1900; F>essie, duly 20, 1001 ; Velda, Dec. 21, 1004.
David Wynn, the eighth son of John Wynn, was born in Craw-
ford county, Ohio, Aug. 28, 1S35. Upon the outbreak of the
Civil War he enlisted July 30, 1861, in Co. E. 34th Regt. O. V. I.,
and served over three years. He fought through the Virginia
campaigns, and participated in thirty-eight engagements, among
which were Fayetteville, Princeton, Charleston, Averill's Raid,
Lynchburg, Summit Point, Cedar Creek, ami Sheridan's Shen-
andoah campaign. Much of this time he served as scout, con-
tinually in that line. He was discharged Sept. 13, 1864. From
disease caused by exposure during this term he suffered much in
later years. He was married to Elizabeth Curtis of Crawford
county, on May 21, 1865. They moved to Adams county, Tnd.,
in April, 1867, where they continued to reside. Mr. Wynn died
at his home near Berne, Ind., on Jan. 27, 1^02. His wife still
lives on the old homestead. They were the parents of the follow-
ing children :
Orthie Wynn, born March 26, 1866. She was united in mar-
riage with John 11. Clancy July 30, 18S5, foreman of bridge
carpenters on the G. R. & I. railroad. Two children were born
to them: Glenn 1)., May 27, 1886, who is now a telegrapher at
Decatur, Ind., and Electa, Oct. 11, 1888, wlio is a high school
student in Decatur.
Tyrclla Wymi was born Sept. 2i, 1S67, died March 5, 1SSC.
Reuben Monroe Wynn, horn Oct. 21, 1869, was united in mar-
riage to Edith O. Smith March 11, 1891. Their only child was
Ruby ()., born Dec. 1, 18!>4. The mother died four weeks later.
Reuben married Miss Sophia Gross on Aug. 20, 189C, to whom
four children were born: lona, Aug. 8, 1897; Medford, Xov.
22, 1899; Ethel, Oct. 28, 1900; Helen, Sept. 30, 1904. Mr.
Reuben Wynn is a bridge carpenter on the G. R. & I. R. R.
Anna Maria Wynn, the oldest daughter of John Wynn, was
born in Crawford county, Ohio, Xov. 1!), 182S. She was married
there on Feb. 12, 1S54, to Mr. Albanus Sawyer, and the young
couple went to housekeeping in Auburn township of that county,
where they continued to reside, and where the wife died July 7,
1899, and the husband also died Feb. 17, 1903. Mr. Sawyer at
the time of his death was the oldest native resident of his town-
ship, being horn there Sept. 20, 1823. He was an enterprising
citizen and occupied at various times the offices of township treas-
urer and assessor, and for more than a score of years was a mem-
ber of the township hoard of education. The following are the
descendants of this worthy couple:
Cornelia Sawyer was horn Jan. 28, 1855, married to William
Render Sept. 3, 1878, and have ever since resided on their farm in
the home country. They had three daughters: Rilla May, born
Dec. IS, 1873, was married to John W. llutt, November, 1891, and
live on farm in Sharon township, Richland county. Their chil-
dren are: Hazel Fern, horn March 1, 1S92 ; Ralph Emerson,
born April 24, 1893 ; Ola Vesta, horn Feb. 4, 1895 ; Inez Cornelia,
Sept. 1."., 1901; Asa William, Feb. 24, 11)04. The other daugh-
ters of William and Cornelia Bender — Minnie, horn May 13,
1885, and lone, horn Dec. 2(5, 1892 — live with their parents.
Asa Sawyer was born Dec. 20, 1856, and died Dec. 5, 1SS4.
He married Alta M. Trago, Oct. 10, 1881. They began house-
keeping in the old Sawyer homestead. A daughter was horn to
this union, Mabel A. Sawyer, Xov. 0, 18S2, who now resides with
her mother in Plymouth, O.
Rule Sawyer was born July 10, 1858. He was married to Dora
Jeffers of Richmond, Ind. They now reside in Richmond, where
Mr. Sawyer is engaged in business. No children have been born
to this union.
Royal E. Sawyer was born June 4, 1SG0. He received a liberal
education, taught school many years, but is now engaged in farm-
ing and insurance work. He married Eunice L. Trago Dec. 2-4,
1SS5, and they had four children: Huron E., born Dec. 17, 1SSG,
who taught school, graduated from the commercial department of
the Ohio Northern University in December, 1905. The other
children are living at home.
Erastus Sawyer, fourth son of Anna Maria, was born March
30, 1SG2, and died Oct. 31, 1864.
Clara Sawyer was born April 22, 1861, and died Jan. 4, 1SS5.
She was well educated and taught several terms of school.
Anna Sawyer was born Feb. IS, 1S60, and married Isaiah W.
Soiulou Oct. 30, 188G. Mr. Soudon was born in Crawford county,
Sept. 19, 1SG3. They had four children: Erma, born May 24,
1SSS ; Homer and Harry (twins), born Feb. G, 1S94 ; Lela, born
July G, 1S99. ' This family are engaged in farming and live in
Henry county, Ohio.
Lotta Sawyer was born Feb. S, 18GS. She Avas united in mar-
riage Jan. 1, 1S91, to James S. Morrow, who was born in Craw-
ford county, Aug. 1, 1SGG. They have three children: Floyd S.,
bom Jan. 10, 1S92; Russell E., born Feb. 4, 1S9G; Iva A., born
March 6, 1904. They live on a farm in Auburn township, Craw-
ford county, Ohio.
John F. Sawyer, the youngest son, was born Jan. 31, 1871. He
married Jennie W. Hanna Jan. 1, 1900, and they have three
children : Waldo Vera, born June 20, 1901 ; Dwight Franklin,
born Aug. 27, 1902 ; Mildred Winona, born Aug. 19, 1905. They
live upon the old Sawyer homestead.
John Librand Wynn, seventh son of John Wynn, Sr., was born
April 11, 1831. He married Mazy McConnell, who died some
years later. They had no children. He is in a manner now de-
mented from illness, and makes his home with Samuel, his brother.
Has been in this condition for thirteen years. He is possessed of
a considerable fortune.
NAIjIA FLORENCE DEEM. KNIUHTSTOW'N. IND.
Isaac Wynn, sixth son of John Wynn, was born in Chester
county, ]'a., Feb. 7, 1827. He was married in 1866 to Emma
Jane .Millard, daughter of Thomas .Millard, who was the son of
Hannah Wynne of Chester county, Pa. She was nineteen years
his junior. They still live on the old Wynn homestead, .Mr.
Wynn being T'.i years old, and "cats like a wood-chopper and sleeps
like a child." They have four children:
Erie Clayton Wynn was born Feb. 17, 1868; died in child-
Roy B. Wynn was born Her. !), 1870; died in childhood.
Estella Lois Wynn, bora Jan. 9, 1n7-'j; lives at home.
Ivo Elsie Wynn. born Aug. 22, 1676; is a trained nurse, having
graduated from Toledo Training School for Nurses — winning the
medal of honor in a class of fifteen in May, 1903.
Loyal Leigh ton Wynn, horn March 22, 1881 ; is a building con-
Glenn Herbert Wynn, horn Dec. 9, 1883, manages the home
Mrs. Sarah L. Bailey, of Philadelphia, who died in March,
190-t, was a great-great-granddaughter of Dr. Thomas Wynne.
She was bora Nov. 25, 1810.
Dr. R. J. Levick of Bala, Philadelphia, is a descendant.
Charles L. Warner of Westchester is a descendant.
A Capt. John (Winn) Wynne resided in Franklin county, Pa.,
A will of John Wynn of St. George county, Md., dated March
1, 1752, mentions children: Ann, John, Josiah, Jemima, Joan,
Mary, Martha, Susanna. Another will, dated Dec. 21, 1703, in
the same county and state, by Josiah Wynn, names children:
William, Josiah, Daniel, Chloe, and he had other children. A
Thomas Wynn was in .Maryland in 1(171. He was a sub-sheriff
in 1(378, and doorkeeper of Colonial Assembly. He was son of
Gruffyd Wynn of Bryn yr Owen ap Richard ap John Wynn of
Trefechan, near Wrexham and Ruahon, Denbighshire, Wales.
Au account of Warner, John anil Josiah Wynn, states that the
latter died in Dauphin county, Pa., in 1820.
Joseph Wynn, Ardmore, Pa., and Theodore Wynne, Philadel-
phia, are among the unclassified members.
Christian Wynne of Walts was transported to Virginia in the
Safety, August, lfio.">. Joseph Wynne arrived on the George ship,
Aug. 21, lC>;io. Also Griffin Winne arrived at Jamestown in ship
Members of the Wynne family are mentioned in the Pennsyl-
vania archives as follows. We give name, volume and page:
Wynne, Thomas Vol. 14, pages 17, 301, 311
Wynne, Jonathan Vol. 24, page 103
Wynne, John Vol. 14, page 88
Wynne, Francis Vol. 23, page 378
Wynne, Daniel Vol. 26, page 525 y
Wynne, Charles Vol. 14, page 659
Wynne, Vol. 20, page 96
Wynne, Webster ' Vol. 23, page 335
Wynne, Weaver Vol. 11, page 616
Wynne, Warner . : Vol. 12, pages 66, 296, 760
Wynne, Wardner Vol. 12, pages 400, 523
Wynne, Thomas Vol. 12, pages 760, XXII, 635
Wynne, Samuel Vol. 11, pages 233, 501, 615, 6S5
Wynne, Samuel Vol. 19, pages 675, 765
Wynne, Jonathan Vol. 11, pages 232, 615
Wynne, Jonathan Vol. 12, pages, 65, 294, 399, 400, 521, 523, 758
Wynne, Jonathan Vol. 19, pages 677, 766
Wynne, Jonathan Vol. 23, pages 247, 250, 348
Wynne, Jonathan Vol. 26, page 526
Wynne, John Vol. 14, pages 340, XVI, 100
Wynne, James Vol. 11, pages 234, 501, 616, 685
Wynne, James Vol. 12, pages 80, 296, 400
Wynne, Jacob Vol. 13, page 523
Wynne, Isaac Vol. 11, pages 482, 609
Wynne, Isaac Vol. 16, page 348
Wynne, Isaac Vol. 20, pages 227, 496, 653
Wynne, Benjamin Vol. 24, page 782
Wynne, Ahaziah Vol. 19, pages 677, 766
Wynne, George Vol. 23, pages 247, 250, 267, 348
Winn, Catherine Vol. 25, page 417
Winn, Henry Vol. 25, pages 316, 353
Winn, Isaac Vol. 11, pages 57, 338
Winn, Isaac Vol. 16, pages 783, 797
Winn, Isaac Vol. 20, pages 104, 761
Winn, Isaac Vol. 22, page 79S
Winn, James Vol. 1 1 , pages 57, 389, 694
Winn, James Vol. 22, page 725
Winn, John Vol. 15, pages 407 XVI, 301
Winn, Jonathan Vol. 11, pages 55, 387, 500, 684
Winn, Jonathan Vol. 19, pages 592, XXIII, 267
Winn, Josiah. . . . v Vol. 17, page 704
Winn, Samuel. . . ' Vol. 11, pages 55, 388
Winn, Samuel Vol. 19, pages 427, 464, 511, 577
Winn, Thomas Vol. 24, page 328
Winn, Warner Vol. 11, page 686
Winn, Webster Vol. 23, pages 287, 318
Winne. John Vol. 14, page 90
Win, John Vol. 14, page 380
Win, Henry v Vol. 23, page 296
Win, Isaac Vol. 14, page 402
Owen Jones, a descendant of Mai; Wynne, daughter of Dr.
Thomas Wynne, married Susanna Evans at Merion, Ta., who was
a lineal descendant of William the Conqueror. Their daughter,
Hannah Jones, married Thomas Foulke of Philadelphia, whose
son, Edward Foulke, married Tracy Jones, and their daughter,
Anna, married Dr. Hiram Corson of Conshohocken, Pa., whose
daughter, Susan Folke Corson, married Jawood Lukens of same
Richard Wynn, a soldier of the Revolution, horn in Virginia
in 174!), entered the patriot army as a young man and served
throughout the war. He was promoted from the rank to various
official positions, becoming brigadier-general at the close of hos-
tilities. He subsequently settled in South Carolina, where he was
elected to Congress, and served as representative until his death
in 1S13. — Ency. Britt.
Thomas Wynn was born in Xorth Carolina in 17G4 and entered
the Colonial army on the outbreak of hostilities with the mother
country. In 17 SO he was taken prisoner and conveyed to London,
but returned at the close of the war and renewed his residence in
North Carolina, lie was a member of the convention by which
the Constitution of 178S was adopted, and afterwards served as a
member of Congress from 1.802 to 1807. He died in Hertford
county, X. C, June 3, 1825.
The following genealogy is taken from Browning's Americans
cf Royal Descent: "Mary Wynne m. Dr. Edward Jones, died
1737, and had Jonathan Jones of Merion, who m. Gainer, d. of
Robt. Owen, also of royal descent, who had Owen Jones, sen.,
1711-03, Treas. of Pennsylvania, who m. Susanna, d. of Hugh
Evans, son of Thomas ap Evan of Gwynedd, Pa., also of royal
descent, and had Lowrie Jones, who m. John Morgan Wister of
Philadelphia in 1S0T>, and had Susan Wister, who in. John Mor-
gan Price of Philadelphia, and had: 1, Lowrie Wister Price, who
m. Charles Humphrey; 2, Rebecca Price, who unirried Robert
Toland of Philadelphia, and had: 1, Henry Toland ; 2, Robert
Toland of Philadelphia, who m. Anna, d. of Edward Crathorne
Dale, and had: 1, Susan Price Dale; 2, Edward Dale; 3, Robert;
4, Matilda Dale. Susan Toland m. Richard A. Tilghman of
Philadelphia — of royal descent — and had: Benj. Chew, Edith,
Susan T., Richard A., Agues, Angela."
The Smedley family, whose family record, already published,
contains oxer one thousand pages, was intermarried with the de-
scendants of Dr. Thomas Wynne. Many years ago they came into
possession of Wynnestaye, the famous old Colonial estate of the
Wynnes, north of Philadelphia. From the Smedley history wc
glean the following paragraph: "In IS95 William P. Smedley
interested his cousin, Walter Smedley, ami George P. Roberts,
president of the Pennsylvania R. R. Co., and a number of his
friends in the purchase of over one hundred acres of land just
west of Fairmount Park on the Penn & Schuylkill R. R. An
association was formed for the improvement of the tract, with S. L.
and W. Smedley as managers. A new station was erected on the
property and called Wvnnefield Av. in memory of Dr. Thomas
Wynne, the physician of William Penn, and in whose descend-
ants the title to about half the property had remained till this
purchase. This tract is now becoming one of Philadelphia's most
In the history of the Snicdleys appears the following item:
"Elizabeth Jane Yarnell, born 1857, m. Ardmore, Pa., Jan. 1,
1894. to Joseph J. Wyun, b. Reading, Pa., Mar. 17, 1857, son of
John L. Wynn and Amelia James. Xo issue."
Also in the same Smedley history appears: "Ella E., daughter
of Davis Bishop, married T. Xcwton Wynn, attorney-at-law, West-
chester, Pa., and has children — Mary Florence, Minnie lone, and
I. Newton Earl."
Also in the same Smedley history appears : "Dr. Thomas
Wynne was executor of Richard ap Thomas (a Smedley)."